Posted:April 20, 2021

A Knowledge Representation PractionaryI Release the Final Chapters from A Knowledge Representation Practionary

I have completed the release of the final four chapters from my book, A Knowledge Representation Practionary, as free PDF downloads in the author’s preprint version. The preprints are the last complete version before final editing and formatting by the publisher.

In this release, I have completed the release of all AKRP chapters by adding: 5. The Precepts, 8. KR Vocabulary and Languages, 11. Knowledge Graphs and Bases, and 14. Testing and Best Practices.

Springer subscribers still have free access to the official version of the book in PDF form and for $25 can obtain a softcover, printed version. However, for all others, please refer to the AKRP page for access details on all of the preprint, free chapters.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on April 20, 2021 at 10:38 am in A Knowledge Representation Practionary | Comments (0)
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Posted:March 17, 2021

A Knowledge Representation PractionaryFive More Chapters from AKRP Now Available

I have added five more chapters from my book, A Knowledge Representation Practionary, as free PDF downloads in the author’s (preprint) version.

In this latest release, I have added these chapters: 4. The Opportunity, 7. A KR Terminology, 10. Modular, Expandable Typologies, 13. Building Out the System, and 16. Potential Uses in Depth.

This latest release continues the process to release all of the book chapters in the author’s version. I welcome your feedback and comments.

Springer subscribers still have free access to the official version of the book in PDF form and for $25 can obtain a softcover, printed version. However, for all others, please refer to my standard AKRP page for updates on additional free chapters.

Posted:March 1, 2021

A Knowledge Representation PractionaryMore Chapters from A Knowledge Representation Practionary Now Available in Author’s Version

I am adding five more chapters from my book, A Knowledge Representation Practionary, as free PDF downloads in the author’s version. This is the last complete version before final editing and formatting by the publisher.

In this release, I am adding these chapters: 3. The Situation, 6. The Universal Categories, 9. Keeping the Design Open, 12. Platforms and Knowledge Management, and 15. Potential Uses in Breadth.

My intent over the next few months is to release all of the book chapters in the author’s version. I’d love to hear your feedback!

Springer subscribers still have free access to the official version of the book in PDF form and for $25 can obtain a softcover, printed version. However, for all others, please refer to my standard AKRP page for updates on additional free chapters.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on March 1, 2021 at 9:40 am in A Knowledge Representation Practionary | Comments (0)
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Posted:February 22, 2021

Hierarchy; image from https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/the-truth-about-hierarchy/Discusses the Role of Order and Complexity in Knowledge Systems

I was very pleased when the editor of the ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization (IEKO), Birger Hjørland, asked me to draft an article on ‘hierarchy’ for peer review. ISKO, the International Society of Knowledge Organization, is the leading international society to advance conceptual work in knowledge organization for all kinds and purposes, such as databases, libraries, dictionaries and the Internet.

Birger had seen my earlier treatment of the hierarchy concept in my book, and felt an expansion of what I had produced there could be of use to this community. I agreed subject to being able to frame the topic using the guidance of Charles Sanders Peirce, to which Birger readily assented. After considerable research and expansion, the draft received many useful comments during review. The resulting paper, with nearly 300 references, has now been published.

Hierarchies — real or artificial — abound to help us organize our world. A hierarchy places items into a general order, where more ‘general’ is also more ‘abstract’. The etymology of the word hierarchy is grounded in notions of religious and social rank. My article, after a broad historical review, focuses on knowledge systems, an interloper of the term hierarchy since at least the 1800s.

Hierarchies in knowledge systems include taxonomies, classification systems, or thesauri in library and information science, and systems for representing information and knowledge to computers, notably ontologies, knowledge graphs, and knowledge representation languages. Hierarchies are the logical underpinning of inference and reasoning in these systems, as well as the scaffolding for classification and inheritance.

Hierarchies in knowledge systems express subsumption relations that have many flexible variants, which we can represent algorithmically, and thus computationally. My article dissects the dimensions of that variability, leading to a proposed typology of hierarchies useful to knowledge systems. The article argues through a perspective informed by Peirce that natural hierarchies are real, can be logically determined, and are the appropriate basis for knowledge systems. Description logics and semantic language standards such as RDF or OWL reflect this perspective, importantly through their open-world logic and vocabularies for generalized subsumption hierarchies.

I conclude the paper by highlighting recent research that suggests possible mechanisms for the emergence of natural hierarchies. These involve the nexus of chance, evolution, entropy, free energy, and information theory.

You may read the open access paper at https://www.isko.org/cyclo/hierarchy.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on February 22, 2021 at 11:25 am in Adaptive Information, Charles Sanders Peirce | Comments (0)
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Posted:December 18, 2020

AI3 PulseComing Out of an Extended Outage

In the more than 15 years of the existence of this AI3 blog, I never have had an outage of more than an hour or so. Today we come back online after an unprecedented 11 day outage. Woohoo! It has been a frustrating period.

The problem first arose after standard maintenance. We use Amazon Web ServicesEC2 instances running Linux Ubuntu in the cloud. We had backed up our sites, taken them offline, and were doing what we thought was a routine upgrade from Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) to 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa). We had some hiccups in getting the system functioning and re-started, but finally did so successfully. After upgrading the server we waited 24 hours during which all Web sites ran fine. We then proceeded to do local upgrades to WordPress and some of its plugins. That is when all hell broke loose.

Upon restarting the server, we lost all SSH communications to the backend. The AWS status check messages indicated the AWS system was fine, but that the instance was not passing checks. When something like this happens, one really begins to scramble.

We did all of the necessary steps of what we thought was required to get the instance back up and running. We restored AMIs, snapshots and volumes and created new instances with combinations of those thereof. Nothing seemed to work.

After days of fighting the fight on our own, we bought support service from AWS and began working with their support staff. Though there were some time delays (overseas support, I assume), we got clear and detailed suggestions for what to try and do. Naturally, due to customer protections, AWS support is not able to manipulate instances directly, but we got the instructions to do so on our own.

It appears that we may have had a kernel or virtualization mismatch that crept in somewhere. However, after a couple of tries, we did get concise instructions about creating and attaching new volumes (drives) to our instance that resolved the problem. After years of managing the instance on our own, I was pleased to get the degree of response we did from AWS support staff. We can also buy support for a single month and then turn it off again. That is our current plan.

Knowing what we know now, or perhaps being a larger organization with more experience in remote server management, could have caused this outage to be solved in a much shorter time. (We also were not devoting full time to it.) The solution of how to properly move backups to restored volumes attached to new instances is a pretty set recipe, but one we had not baked before.

So, now we are back running. Our snapshot restored us to prior to all of the upgrades, so that task is again in front of us. This time, however, we will take greater care and backup each baby step as we move forward.

This glitch will cause us to go through our existing infrastructure with a fine-tooth comb. That effort, plus the holidays, means I will be suspending the completion of my Cooking with Python and KBpedia series until after the beginning of the new year.

Sorry for the snafu, and thanks to all of you who contacted us letting us know our sites were offline. My apologies for the extended outage. And Happy Holidays! to all.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on December 18, 2020 at 1:07 pm in Site-related | Comments (0)
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