Posted:June 30, 2009

Random Colour Swirl photo courtesy from PD Nathan at PhotobucketInteroperable Naïve Data Structs, Datasets and Canonical RDF

As I noted in my review of SemTech 2009, one of the key themes of the conference was data federation. Unfortunately, data federation has been a term a bit out of vogue for a while. (Though I still think it best captures the space.)

The current vernacular has been pushing forward an alternative: data mixing. One of the larger product pushes at the conference was by Zepheira for its new Freemix service and product. Freemix is a hosted service largely built around the Exhibit data display application, aided by some tools to make creating an exhibit easier. Exhibit is an attractive presentation system; for nearly three years AI3‘s own Sweet Tools dataset listing of semantic Web and -related tools has been presented via Exhibit.

Freemix looks promising and is now being offered in beta. But one thing caught my ear when listening to the company’s announcement: they are not yet able and ready to show the “data mixing” part of the system. Its release is apparently being delayed until later this year because of the difficulties encountered.

This post coincides with the release of the alpha version of the structWSF code on the OpenStructs Web site. It is available for download under Apache 2 license.
We’ll be blogging a few more times in the coming days regarding other possible uses and applications for this platform-independent Web services framework.

What is Data Mixing and Why is it So Hard?

As a new term there is no “official” definition of data mixing. However, I think we can consider it as generally equivalent to the older data federation concept.

Data federation is the bringing together of data from heterogeneous and often physically distributed data sources into a single, coherent view. Sometimes this is the result of searching across multiple sources, in which case it is called federated search. But it is not limited to search. Data federation is a key concept in business intelligence and data warehousing and a driver behind master data management (MDM).

As I first wrote about data federation about five years ago [1]:

Data federation first became a research emphasis within the biology and computer science communities in the 1980s. At that time, extreme diversity in physical hardware, operating systems, databases, software and immature networking protocols hampered the sharing of data.
Yet it is easy to overlook the massive strides in overcoming these obstacles in the past two decades.

The Internet and its TCP/IP and Web HTTP protocols and XML standards in particular, have been major contributors to overcoming respective physical and syntactical and data exchange heterogeneities. The current challenge is to resolve differences in meaning, or semantics, between disparate data sources. Your “glad” may be someone else’s “happy” and you may organize the world into countries while others organize by regions or cultures.

Resolving semantic heterogeneities is also called semantic mediation or data mediation. Though it displays as a small portion of the pyramid above, resolving semantics is a complicated task and may involve structural conflicts (such as naming, generalization, aggregation), domain conflicts (such as schemas or units), or data conflicts (such as synonyms or missing values). Researchers have identified nearly 40 distinct types of possible semantic heterogeneities [2].

Ontologies provide a means to define and describe these different worldviews. Referentially integral languages such as RDF (Resource Description Framework) and its schema implementation (RDF-S) or the Web ontological description language OWL are leading standards among other emerging ones for machine-readable means to communicate the semantics of data.

Fortunately, we have climbed most of this data federation pyramid. The stumbling block now are the semantics. This is made all the harder when we place too much burden on the data transmission or “packet” itself. In other words, does exchange also carry with it the burden of meaning? The rest of this post tries to explain what I mean by this and how it relates to our new structWSF Web services framework.

Is it Apples or Oranges?

Not to pick on any one thing or any individuals, but three recent threads on semantic Web-related mailing lists help illustrate in various ways some interesting mindsets. While there is much on each of these threads of other value, I’m only focusing on a narrow topic from each based on my thesis at hand.

And, what is that thesis? It is simply that we too often mix instance record and attribute assertions with schema representations and world views. And, when we do, we sometimes make mountains out of molehills (or mix apples and oranges to completely mix metaphors).

Example 1: Squeezing RDF into JSON

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a data notation or syntax, easily created and widely used for current Web apps. It has a rather simple syntax for representing attribute-value pairs. Many useful tools and parsers for the serialization exist.

In keeping with his general and broad criticisms of how the semantic Web standards and approaches have been promulgated by the W3C to date, John Sowa most recently expressed his ideas in a posting to the ontolog-forum mailing list under the heading of ‘Semantic Systems’ [3]. In this thread, John proposes:

1. The recommended exchange form for RDF will become JSON. Any JSON documents that are limited to triples can use the old XML-based RDF form, but they can also use the more compact and more general full JSON.

Then, in a subsequent posting to that thread he notes:

5. The W3C made a major blunder with a one-size-fits-all approach that tried to use a document tagging language as a knowledge representation language. The result was the *worst* notation for logic ever invented.

Finally, he goes on to note in a further post:

JSON could be used as an alternative to XML for the syntax, but the lack of a standard semantics for JSON means that it could *not* be used as a replacement for RDF *unless* an official standard were adopted for mapping RDF to and from a particular subset of JSON whose semantics was defined in Common Logic.

All of this John proposes in the spirit of:

The goal of my proposal is nothing less than a total *integration* of the Semantic Web methodologies with the methodologies that have been used in the traditional software development community [3].

I find common ground with a couple of the ideas in this proposal. First, accepted formats like JSON should have a prominent place in data exchange. Second, leveraging methodologies used in the traditional community is definitely a good thing.

But John, while suggesting reuse of existing traditions, is also paradoxically recommending a wholesale replacement for RDF. He is also positing a single exchange standard (JSON). And, he stops tantalizingly short of recognizing an important truth that I’m sure he knows: simple instance record assertions and representations — the essence of data exchange — can and should be viewed separately from schema representations.

As I have noted in my earlier naïve data ‘structs’ series, there are in fact scores of existing data transfer formats that have been adopted by their communities — and are likely to remain popular within those communities for some time — that can play a similar role to JSON. So long as the role of data exchange is kept to the assertions (“metadata”) about instances, many formats can play in the sandbox.

The role of RDF may or may not reside with data exchange. To conflate and equate RDF and JSON is to reduce the power of keeping instance record representations separate from schema and world view representations. John’s basic sensibilities, I think, could be more effectively promoted by not posing ‘either-or’ strawmen and recognizing that data exchange formats will ALWAYS be diverse and heterogeneous.

Observation: Existing and emerging data ‘structs’ useful to data exchange will remain manifest in format and diversity; data exchange imperatives are a different matter from schema and knowledge representation.

Example 2: RDFa is Not ‘Expressive’ Enough

Somewhat in contrast to this thread was a different one by Martin Hepp, editor of the excellent Good Relations ontology, on the LOD (linked open data) mailing list [4]. This thread, which sensibly questions how difficult it is for mere mortals to configure an Apache server to support publishing RDF, reached further into the realm of RDFa as a document annotation language.

As Hepp states,

The reason is that, as beautiful the idea is of using RDFa to make a) the human-readable presentation and b) the machine-readable meta-data link to the same literals, the problematic is it in reality once the structure of a) and b) are very different. For very simple property-value pairs, embedding RDFa markup is no problem. But if you have a bit more complexity at the conceptual level and in particular if there are significant differences to the structure of the presentation (e.g. in terms of granularity, ordering of elements, etc.), it gets very, very messy and hard to maintain.

Further discussion in this thread elaborates the interest in having the documents in which the RDFa is embedded carry much more schema-level information.

Like the Sowa case, this raises the question of where to draw the line. Should embedded metadata in documents carry complex schema information as well? So, we now shift the focus from data exchange to schema representation.

I think this is really unnecessary since it is quite easy in RDFa to refer to a separately specified schema. By, in this case, conflating metadata transfer and exchange with schema, the bar has been raised unnecessarily high.

If we need to capture schema and world views, fine, let us do so directly and succinctly. Then, let our document metadata (in this case using RDFa) make attribute assertions about that “payload” simply and cleanly. The Web certainly does not need individual documents carrying with them entire schema representational views of the world.

Observation: Data exchange, even based on RDF (via RDFa), is best kept to the assertions of facts and attributes.

Example 3: Mixing Vocabularies

In a microformats context, Thomas Loertsch posed some questions on mixing vocabularies [5] and how they should be interpreted. This caused an involved discussion of intent and possible implications and best practices, with discussants including Brian Suda, Peter Mika, Ben Ward and others. It also led to the start of a useful wiki page on how objects should be represented in Web pages when multiple microformats can be invoked.

For quite some time microformats, I think, have gotten the “mix” just about right. They have created well-reasoned attributes for distinct instance types and seek to keep their embedding of that information simple in existing documents. Some advocate while others question the rigor of the microformat structure; that is not the topic here.

What is interesting about this thread is that it evolved to discuss the implications and best practices when an author posts a document with more than one microformat. How do these vocabularies relate? How should we, as “consumers” of the document, parse the vocabularies?

Yahoo!’s SearchMonkey service has recognized microformats for some time, and its questions regarding interpretation and best practices in the thread were natural. But the interesting point that seemed to come out of this thread is that users will post microformats as they wish. While care and standards in the design of the microformats can help reduce confusion and conflict, it can not guarantee it. The final responsibility for proper ingest and processing likely resides with the aggregators and publishers that consume such data.

So, here, too, we have another case of asserting metadata and embedding for data exchange in a slightly different native format than RDF. Huzzah!

Observation: Standards setters and consuming agents (often aggregators, publishers or search engines) should take lead responsibility for best practices and processing attribute data, realizing that original authors and developers may not fully comply.

Revisiting the ABox and TBox Split

structWFSThese examples are a bit of a long way around the barn to reinforce what we have been arguing for some time: the need for a proper split between the ABox (assertions related to instances) and the TBox (concept relationships, schema and world views) [6]. This has been a pretty constant theme in our writing, ranging from first introductions, to its relation to description logics, relationships to existing data ‘structs’, and explicit discussion of ABox and TBox roles in a four-part series.

One of the key points throughout this writing is that an ABox-TBox mindset provides a context and rigor for looking at questions such as our three examples above. In all three cases, I argue, the seeming conundrums result from lacking this mindset. Once this mindset is applied, the respective roles of various data formats, RDF, schema and the like naturally fall into place.

Of course, the Web is also a dirty and chaotic place where niceties of design and best practices are routinely ignored or unknown or purposefully rejected. So be it. This is reality. This reality needs to be accommodated. But good design can help overcome it and work to establish resilient, flexible architectures.

Of course, even though this might be good design, there is no ability to enforce such distinctions across the Web. However, insofar as key implementors are concerned (standards writers, major publishers, tools developers, industry experts, and the like) we can put in place better approaches. This mantra is at the heart of all that Structured Dynamics does — including the structWSF Web services framework, just released as open source code.

A General Data Mixing Model

So, now we can finally turn our attention to the structWSF Web services framework, more broadly described here.

There are a number of perspectives and contexts to view this structWSF framework. In this posting, we take the boundary conditions of data formats and data exchange [7]. The key question for this perspective is: given the realities noted above, what is an adaptive framework for data mixing on the Web? Our schematic answer to this question is below:

The basic design has two key data considerations. First, all structWSF tools and Web services and schema work from the canonical RDF data model. It is the hub and common denominator for all structWSF installations. We are able to design and optimize generic tools and services (including converters) around this canonical framework.

Second, we assume most everything in the outside world to be non-compliant with this canonical model, with the data representations often naïve and incomplete. Converters (also known as translators or RDFizers) are an essential bridge to this external world, and need to be designed for re-use and extensibility.

Where the outside world is compliant, they conform to the structWSF APIs or are themselves structWSF installations. In these cases, direct data exchange and access with permission rights occurs at a dataset level (not shown).

The Naïve Part of the Spectrum

Converters are themselves bona fide Web services at the structWSF level. (Only a few are presently included in the alpha release.) While some may be one-off converters (sometimes off-the-shelf RDFizers), and often devoted to large volume external data sources, it is also helpful to emphasize one or more “standard” naïve external formats. A “standard” external format allows for a more sophisticated converter and enables specific tools to be more easily justified around the standard naïve format.

As noted above, this “standard” is often JSON or a derivative of JSON. But, just as readily, the common ‘naïve’ format could be SQL from relational databases or another format common to the community at hand. In many ways, because the emphasis of data exchange is on the ABox and instance records and assertions (and attribute extensions), the actual format and serialization is pretty much immaterial.

Emphasizing one or a few naïve external formats allows more tools and services to be cost-effectively developed for those formats. And, even though the format(s) chosen for this external standard may lack the expressiveness of RDF (and, ultimately, OWL), because the burden is principally related to data exchange, this layer can be readily optimized for the deployment at hand.

Besides import converters it is also important to have export services for the more broadly used naïve external formats. In fact, some structWSF services can be devoted to data cleanup or attribute (property) or object reconciliation (including disambiguation as a possibility). In this manner, structWSF installations could also improve the authority and trustworthiness of standard data in the wild.

Another common service for this naïve data is to give it unique URI identifiers and to make it Web-accessible, thus turning it into linked data.

The RDF Canonical Data Model

Such generic services are possible because the “highest common denominator” for the system is the canonical RDF model. Because it is the consistent basis for tools and services, once a converter is available and the external information schema is mapped to the internal structure, all existing tools and services are available for re-use. Moreover, this system and its datasets are now ready for sharing with other structWSF instances, within the enterprise or beyond.

Thus, we begin to see a network of canonical “hubs” in a sea of heterogeneity, the interoperation of which is facilitated by a structWSF framework at every network node. This design is discussed more in the next part of this series.

Some, such as Sowa noted above, would prefer a grounding in common logic (CL) as opposed to RDF. Our choice to use RDF is based on the simplicity and understandability of the data model, plus the richness of languages and standards from the W3C that surround the framework.

Even here, however, the RDF basis of structWSF need not be the final word. Because of a keen intent to keep all designs and ontologies used by structWSF firmly grounded in description logics, it is possible for the structWSF basis to be converted to other languages and frameworks such as CL that can be expressed in DL.

Bringing it Back to Data Federation

Data mixing — or more preferably, data federation — has as its heart the premise of heterogeneous and distributed data sources. It implicitly acknowledges differences in syntax, semantics and serializations.

The design and architecture of structWSF is similarly premised. While each of us may prefer one model or one format over others, we must interoperate in the real world. And that world, for many understandable and immutable reasons, will retain its diversity. Accepting this reality is a first step to adaptive design.

So, we control what we can control, and we adapt to what else exists. We have chosen RDF as the canonical data model that we can control and have embedded it in a Web services framework that is Web-based and scalable; in other words, a fully compliant Web-oriented architecture. These are the conceptual foundations to structWSF.

To be sure, structWSF in its current alpha release is quite raw in many areas and incomplete in others. But we will continue to work on it — and invite your participation to do the same — such that it can fulfill its destiny as a data federation framework for the Web.

[1] I first wrote about this while at BrightPlanet; a page is still up on that Web site with the text above. I have re-caste this material in various ways since.
[2] I have previously written on the “40 sources” of data heterogeneity. See here, for example.
[3] See and continue to follow the noted thread.
[4] See the thread, ‘ .htaccess a major bottleneck to Semantic Web adoption,’ at and continue to follow this thread.
[5] See and continue to follow the ‘mixing vocabularies’ thread.

[6] This is our working definition of the ABox and TBox in specific reference to description logics:

“Description logics and their semantics traditionally split concepts and their relationships from the different treatment of instances and their attributes and roles, expressed as fact assertions. The concept split is known as the TBox (for terminological knowledge, the basis for T in TBox) and represents the schema or taxonomy of the domain at hand. The TBox is the structural and intensional component of conceptual relationships. The second split of instances is known as the ABox (for assertions, the basis for A in ABox) and describes the attributes of instances (and individuals), the roles between instances, and other assertions about instances regarding their class membership with the TBox concepts.”
[7] For functionality, download, documentation or other direct materials on structWSF, please see and its related resources. There is also a Drupal instantiation of the system called conStruct, also available for download.
Posted:June 23, 2009

conStruct LogoThe slides for our conStruct announcement at SemTech 2009 have been posted on Slideshare.

The slideshow, Data-driven Apps with conStruct, have much on the architecture and benefits of conStruct, from the context of the Bibliographic Knowledge Network (BKN) project. The slides came from my talk on “BKN: Building Knowledge through Communities, and Communities through Knowledge.”


Posted:June 21, 2009

SemTech 2009

SemTech 2009 is Now the Gold Standard

OK, I admit it. I’m a dweeb and a suck-up. I have just returned from the Semantic Technology Conference in San Jose (CA) and I could not be more impressed. For real semantic Web action, this was the place to be. And, I’m sure, it will continue to be so if its leadership stays intact for some time to come.

I know, it is really not my style to applaud others when I could be patting myself on the back. But, hey, this was such a remarkable meeting in so many ways that I feel I have to break from precedent.

In terms of dislcosure let me be clear: I hope I get invited back to speak again next year (only this time in a bigger forum. Hint. Hint.) But, even if not invited to speak, me and my company will be there with bells on for this simple reason: this is the semantic Web confab that matters.

Unlike others that have noted specific talks, etc., I will not do so. Not because there were not talks that warrant such visibility; indeed, there were a tremendous number. My biggest regret of the meeting is that I could only taste a portion of all of the talks because so much was going on. But, rather than singling out any specific talks, I’d like to comment more thematically.

The conference organizers reported that more than 500 paper suggestions were put forward for what ended up being about 150 speaking slots. This was in addition to many tutorials, keynotes and many rump meetups. My best guess is that there were on the order of 1200 in total attendance. It was a packed five days or so. San Jose and the facilities were excellent.

The Real Message

When tech shows reportedly are down on average 40% or so from prior years, it is pretty remarkable to have one exceed its prior attendance, which SemTech 2009 apparently did. There were real customers, real use cases and real interest at every turn and in every conversation. Many hard problems were brought forward; some without acceptable solutions yet.

The real theme I kept hearing was: data federation, data federation, data federation. The potential for semantic Web technologies via the RDF data model and OWL and ontologies for finally breaking down the barriers between data silos was hammered and probed. The timing, I think, could not have been better than to have received shortly before the conference the timely PricewaterhouseCoopers technology quarterly report on linked data in the enterprise that I reviewed a couple of weeks back.

I think we can safely say that the advances from linked data in the past couple of years have been huge enablers and eye-openers to these prospects. But I also had the sense that the discourse is now moving beyond linked data as practiced so far. Web identifiers and Web access, I think, have won the argument. It is now time to move on to real data, interoperability and efficient tools and build-out.

Making the Pragmatic Prominent

To be sure there were discussions of more consumer-oriented apps and search. But the major energy and action seemed to center on the enterprise.

The idea is how can RDF bring us leverage, not replace what already exists. After 30 years of frustration, how can we finally solve the data federation problem? How can we remove the historical brittleness of applications and report writers? How can we actually begin to extract business intelligence from the massive data assets we already have at hand?

Asking enterprises to junk what they have for promises and prayers will not cut it. The winning strategy, and the challenge I kept hearing was: How can we layer on semantic technologies and RDF to bridge our existing data stores? How can we leave our RDBMs in place while gaining the goodness of ontologies and semantics?

We clearly see all around us the power of open source and the withering of proprietary apps and approaches. But, much data and information will remain private and needs to have access and rights restrictions. What answers does semantic technologies offer in these areas?

Then, as suppliers in this brave new world of open source and low software rents, what is the winning business model? Tom Tague helped articulate the importance of revenue models and options in his keynote; it resonated with already ongoing discussions in the hallways.

I’ve been in this space for more years than I care to admit. My observation from prior years is that some new “big thing” is identified, given blessing and push by the industry analysts (always with a new acronym), and then hyped like hell. Maybe it is the current challenged economic climate, but it feels like those days are over. For good.

Hype will not open wallets anymore. Case studies and real warts will help bring confidence that something truly different is at hand with semantic technologies. Our central challenge as suppliers to this market is to respond to today’s pragmatic imperatives. We must demonstrate more with less and faster. We must emphasize leverage and re-use. We must respect the trillions in already sunk IT assets.

Why This Matters to You

I think this matters much for three different communities.

For enterprises, I think it means that it is time for pilots and engagements. Both the market and the suppliers can not move this space forward rapidly without meaningful engagement. We’re ready, and it seems like many of you are as well. Push it with your bosses; we’ll deliver.

For the linked data community, where do you go next? I, too, heard some of the criticisms about too much “ontology.” But such discussion risks wasting the gains already achieved. If we do not listen and respond to the market’s imperatives and voice, we will become irrelevant. Let’s accept linked data as a tremendously helpful step in an ongoing progression, but continue to mature.

For some of the more established semantic technology providers, we have to make it simpler and faster. Expensive ontology development, too, will become irrelevant if we are indeed going to replace conventional software development with data-driven apps. Fortunately, I saw much, much exciting in this space and really had my eyes opened to tremendous innovation.

Outside of the venue, I heard from some of my prior Silicon Valley colleagues that this was the most constrained VC situation they have seen in decades. Funds may exist, but capital calls are not being made. What little powder there is, is being kept dry to triage existing investments. It is a good thing capital requirements for new start-ups have declined so much in recent years, because VCs are unlikely to fund the gap. And, aside from some big, prominent initiatives like or health care digitization, most savvy observers would bet that US and EU funding will also begin drying up in the coming years.

All of this can sound like bad news, but I think it is an opportunity: As technologists and suppliers, we must be relentlessly revenue focused and deliver what the market is demanding: more with less faster while preserving existing investments.

Five Stars: The Craft of Conference Organizing

The organizers from Wilshire Conferences and their entire staff did an absolutely tremendous job. Tony Shaw, Eric Franzon, Steve Bastasini and Eric Hoffer (I know Eric, you were only pinch hitting), plus the many on-site staff, were uniformly professional and unobtrusive. Sally Khudairi on PR and the A/V and registration crew were also excellent.

I once had responsibility for an annual technical meeting that averaged more than 2000 attendees and 150 exhibitors and I appreciate how many moving parts there are behind the scenes. Things work when nothing gets noticed. My guess is few noticed any issues or problems at this conference.

The stated aim on the intro slide to each session was to educate, and the agenda certainly achieved that. A/V was professional; time was kept; coffee did not run out; wi-fi glitches were quickly solved.

Sure, like any business, there is some pay-to-play in such conferences. Big sponsors get more slots and visibility. This reality, however, was also well balanced with new voices and innovative presenters. My “to do” notes and contacts resulting from the conference will take quite some time to work through.

One of the things I really appreciated was how the time slots and composition of talks and activities were varied each day. I have not attended a meeting before that did such a good job of mixing the schedule up to keep things feeling fresh over so many intense days.

Much, thanks, folks, for a conference exceedingly well done.

Last Thoughts

If I had to note a quibble I guess it would be to start the conference with more challenges and innovations. While the tutorials are very helpful, the first opening talks, I hope, could not be quite so introductory in nature. I think things are maturing fast. But, I could be wrong. First-time attendees from the marketplace should probably guide how such events start ramping up the engine.

As I noted, I and Structured Dynamics will be back next year, and hopefully contribute in more ways as well. The venue for SemTech 2010 has changed to the Hilton in San Francisco on June 21 – 25.

So, start saving for your travel budget now. This is “must see” semantic Web. And I look forward to seeing you there in a year!

Posted:June 17, 2009

Drupal Logo

Structured Dynamics Announces Drupal and Web Services Frameworks at SemTech 2009 Conference

After six months of dedicated effort, we are pleased to announce two new products: conStruct, which is a set of modules for bringing structured (RDF) content capabilities to Drupal and structWSF, the platform-independent Web services framework that underlies it.

There has been some promising effort to expose RDF data from Drupal for some time, and expressing internal data within Drupal as RDFa is being implemented by others as part of the upcoming version 7 of Drupal. These are exciting prospects that we wholeheartedly applaud. In fact, they will also be great sources to our products noted below.

However, our innovation looks through the other end of the telescope: Our new conStruct structured content system (SCS) enables external structured data to actually ‘drive the application‘. We think Drupal is the perfect host to demonstrate this new paradigm of ‘data-driven apps’.

The conStruct Drupal module makes the connections between existing Drupal capabilities and the structWSF Web services framework. structWSF provides a standard suite of Web services, an innovative means to access and manage datasets, and the hooks to underlying structured data stores and full-text search engines.

Combined with the existing efforts to expose RDF from Drupal, we think these two new products now promise a two-way highway for structured data thorugh Drupal.



structWSF is a platform-independent Web services framework for accessing and exposing structured RDF data. Its central organizing perspective is that of the dataset. These datasets contain instance records, with the structural relationships amongst the data and their attributes and concepts defined via ontologies (schema with accompanying vocabularies).

The structWSF middleware framework is generally RESTful in design and is based on HTTP and Web protocols and open standards. The initial structWSF framework comes packaged with a baseline set of about a dozen Web services in CRUD, browse, search and export and import.

All Web services are exposed via APIs and SPARQL endpoints. Each request to an individual Web service returns an HTTP status and a document of resultsets (if the query result is not null). Each results document can be serialized in many ways, and may be expressed as either RDF or pure XML.

In initial release, structWSF has direct interfaces to the Virtuoso RDF triple store (via ODBC, and later HTTP) and the Solr faceted, full-text search engine (via HTTP). However, structWSF has been designed to be fully platform-independent. The framework is open source (Apache 2 license) and designed for extensibility.

conStruct SCS

conStruct Logo

conStruct SCS is a structured content system that extends the basic Drupal content management framework. conStruct enables structured data and its controlling vocabularies (ontologies) to drive applications and user interfaces.

Users and groups can flexibly access and manage any or all datasets exposed by the system depending on roles and permissions. Report and presentation templates are easily defined, styled or modified based on the underlying datasets and structure. Collaboration networks can readily be established across multiple installations and non-Drupal endpoints. Powerful linked data integration can be included to embrace data anywhere on the Web.

conStruct provides Drupal-level CRUD (create – read – update – delete), data display templating, faceted browsing, full-text search, and import and export over structured data stores based on RDF. Depending on roles and permissions, a given user may or may not see specific datasets or tools within the Drupal interface. Search and browse results are similarly sequestered depending on access rights. There is a core conStruct project on Drupal, with the additional optional modules of structDisplay and structOntology coming soon thereafter.

Two Accompanying Web Sites

In addition to the products themselves, two different Web sites accompany our announcement, both based on Drupal. is dedicated to the platform-independent offerings. All OpenStructs tools are premised on the canonical RDF (Resource Description Framework) data model. OpenStructs tools either convert existing data structures to RDF, extract structure from content as RDF, or manage and manipulate RDF. All OpenStructs tools and approaches are compliant with existing open standards from the W3C. The intent is to achieve maximum data and software interoperabililty.

The main software distribution from OpenStructs is structWSF. Over time, OpenStructs is also meant to be the distribution point for user-generated “structs” in data display templating, and data extractors and converters, in addition to additional Web services compliant with the structWSF framework.

conStruct SCS is a knowledge site dedicated to conStruct and provides demos and sandboxes for the system. It accompanies the actual project sites on Drupal itself.

Unveiled at SemTech 2009

We unveiled and demoed the two products yesterday at the 2009 Semantic Technology Conference in San Jose, California. I did so during my talk on, "BKN: Building Communities through Knowledge, and Knowledge Through Communities." SemTech 2009 is a premier semantic Web event, which has been steadily growing and now exceeds 1000 attendees.

structWSF has been under development by Structured Dynamics for some time. Its linkage and incorporation within the Drupal system has more recently been supported by the Bibliographic Knowledge Network.

BKN is a major, two-year, NSF-funded project jointly sponsored by the University of California, Berkeley, Harvard University, Stanford University, and the American Institute of Mathematics, with broad private sector and community support. BKN is developing a suite of tools and infrastructure for citations and bibliographies within the mathematics and statistics domain based on semantic technologies for professionals, students or researchers to form new communities.

An alpha version of structWSF will released for download from the OpenStructs ( Web site on June 30. The conStruct system will be released at the same time under GPL license. See its home site at or within the Drupal module system (

Some Early Observations

Structured Dynamics has as its mission to assist enterprises and non-profit organizations and projects to adopt Web-accessible and interoperable data. These are our first product offerings geared to address this mission.

The basic premise is that the data itself becomes the application. Via structured, linked data and a combination of products and Web services, information in any form and from any source can now be integrated and made interoperable. Linked data is based on open standards to interconnect any form of relevant information on the Web — on demand and in context.

One of the most exciting aspects of the overall architecture behind these two products is their suitability to support distributed collaboration, across diverse and definable datasets, all supported by sensitivity to role-based data and tools (Web services) access.

We’ll be speaking much more on these topics now that we have this foundation in place. We also, of course, have much to learn about the deployment and use case potentials of these frameworks.

These two products signal our (SD’s) commitment to open source. We hope some of you also see the promise in these frameworks to provide an adaptive infrastructure to linked and structured data. We welcome your participation!

Posted:June 10, 2009

Structured Dynamics LLCOntology Best Practices for Data-driven Applications: Part 3

In my Intrepid Guide to Ontologies from a couple of years back, I noted that “Ontology is one of the more daunting terms for those exposed for the first time to the semantic Web.” And, for sure, if one starts to peruse the current discussions ranging from the Ontolog Forum to major academic symposia (not meaning to single anyone out), it is clear that the idea of developing “ontologies” is often freighted with much weight, hot air, and (by implication) cost.

This is both a shame because, firstly, it is unnecessary and not often true. And, secondly, because the whole pragmatic idea of what an ontology is and what it can do has often gotten lost in the shuffle.

To be sure, there have been massive standards efforts and EU-funded mega-projects devoted to ontologies. There are certainly cases where coordination of specific domains such as petroleum or integration with a complicated supplier base such as in airline manufacture warrant these massive, complicated ontology development efforts.

But, from my vantage, these extremes overshadow the vast majority of more prosaic, pragmatic applications of ontologies. Remember, ontologies are merely a means of describing a conceptual view of the world [1]. If one defines that “world” within focused and appropriate scope, it is surprising (we believe) how much mileage can be extracted from these suckers.

As we see a breakthrough of interest in semantic Web and linked data principles applied to the enterprise, as wonderfully described in the recent seminal PricewaterhouseCoopers quarterly Technology Forecast, also notably with a prominent focus on ontologies, I think it is time to direct all guns on prior bad assumptions and bad anecdotes. To wit:

  • Ontology development need not be a comprehensive, self-contained definition of a “big picture.” Ontologies can be focused, limited, and grow and change as needed
  • Ontology development need not be expensive. Whoever is selling six-figure ontology development to businesses ought to be taken out and shot. Start small and focused; frankly, a simple spreadsheet taxonomy or quick conversion of existing XML or metadata or vocabulary standards is A-OK to get started
  • Ontology development is not massive and static: rather, it is small and flexible and incremental as more is brought in and more is learned
  • Ontology development is not some imperative for conceptual “truth”; rather, it is a very adaptable means for stating, testing and refining stuff
  • Ontology development is certainly no massive relational schema; by its nature it is malleable with nary a whiff of “lock-in”, and
  • Most importantly, ontology development is a way of “driving” applications and user interfaces and reports.

In fact, it is the last point that no one is discussing today, but it is the most important of the lot: Ontologies, properly crafted, can be the ‘engines’ for data-driven applications.

It is this latter point that is a true paradigm shift and one of the most exciting prospects of ontologies.

Manifest Uses

Ontologies, for sure, are a formal representation of conceptual relations, a “world view.” But, that world view need not carry with it the freight of trying to describe all human knowledge. It can (and should) be restricted to an understandable scope (domain) and purpose. In that vein, what does such a “world view” need?

Let’s first talk about scope. We don’t need a “global ontology” that is accepted by everybody on Earth. What we need are focused ontology(ies) for describing things within a given problem space (whose data may reside in a single dataset or aggregate of datasets). We need to communicate how this system describes the things within its domain and how it understands the concepts and attributes associated with its problem space and data. This communication is published as the ontology. Rather than a global, comprehensive schema, we simply need these well constructed bricks, one by one.

Then, the ontology itself needs to be understandable and manageable. Ontologies should be readable by machines, but too many see ontologies solely through the lens of machines. I believe that to be a mistake. While importantly needing to be designed for machine ingest, I believe the real purpose of ontologies is for humans. How do we label things? How do we describe and define things? How do we find things? How do we organize things? How can these understandings be brought before us in the software that we use?

These types of questions lead us to the pragmatic and pull us back from the abstract. If we keep foremost the simple idea that ontologies are merely structures for how to organize (schema) and describe (vocabularies) our problem space at hand, then we can actually get on with cutting the bull and getting real stuff done.

Let’s take as an example our structWSF Web services framework that I will be announcing and demoing for the first time at SemTech 2009 next week. We developed a simple and flexible ontology to describe what a “Web services framework” should be. Then, we developed and implemented the software to make it happen. This means that an ontology development task can be seen as a specification task, too.

Pragmatic Applications of Ontologies

So, OK, what do these exhortations mean? Without respect to any particular scope or domain, let me then list below some important functional areas to which ontologies — properly and pragmatically designed — can contribute.

Conceptual Relationships

The traditional lens for viewing ontologies is as a means to express conceptual relationships. We agree.

However, ontologies need not have large and nuanced predicate (relationship) vocabularies in order to be useful. Relatively simple but powerful structures with hierarchical or part-of relationships can be very effectively employed for inferencing or faceted searching. From a pragmatic standpoint, let’s first agree on what “things” (nouns) there are in our domains, then let’s worry about how they relate (verbs).

The idea here has long been known as successive approximation: Let’s first get ourselves into the right country, then right province, then right city, then right neighborhood, then right house, and then right room. Only then should we worry about the condition of the paint or the age of the floors.

Endless harangues about “true” conceptual relations are a hindrance, not a help, to this perspective. It is much better (and faster, cheaper and more pragmatic) to put forward simple but coherent relationships than to worry about what all of that “really” means. From a business perspective, isn’t being able to utilize the assertion that the hip bone is connected to the thigh bone more important than having to await a full explication of all of the muscles and ligaments and tendons that might comprise them?

Once such simple relationship structures are embraced, then amazing inferencing power comes to the fore. If one searches on thigh bone, inferencing can also bring forward the hip because of its relationships to the leg.

Integrating Instance Data

OK, so now at least we have a coherent scaffolding of concepts and their straightforward relationships. That is, is concept A a “bigger” one (class or super set) than concept B? (Other simple relations could be substituted.) If so, we now see a bit of an organizing “world view” begin to emerge.

So, now we begin to bring in external data. But that data and its schema describe themselves differently. In one realm it is “foo”; in the other, “bar”.

While this different terminology for the same “thing” or related things may not be known at the outset, it is discoverable. And, when discovered, it is quite easy to associate the idea or concept of “foo” in one dataset to “bar” in another. In this manner, through learning and accretion, we are able to associate more and more similar things to one another.

We did not need to begin with some global, cosmic view to begin relating this data to one another. We only needed the right framework and structure that allowed this association to evolve as the learning occurred.

And, oh, by the way: this very same process is akin to documenting the organization’s institutional memory.

Orienting to Other Knowledge and Domains

Being able to relate and “classify” or “organize” some things to other things also means that we are now beginning to create a roadmap for how “stuff” in a broad sense relates to other “stuff.” For example, if I develop a detailed understanding of the hip bone, I can now bring that body of knowledge into the context above to relate this new information to the thigh and to the leg.

Frankly, at this juncture, while perhaps ultimately important, it is helpful merely to know that Domain A (hip) is somehow related to Domain B (thigh). Think of the issue more like trying to get into the right map vicinity on the globe, and not whether individual streets intersect.

Again, the mindset here is one of letting ontologies and their concepts get related knowledge bases into the same ballpark. Whether we are trying to match Little League ball players with Major League ballplayers is beside the point: accept that both are playing baseball, then decide the importance and specifics of the relationship in a later step.

Again, “ballpark” is more helpful than no connection whatsoever. Silly statements about “ontological commitments” really mean nothing. Ontologies, like any other tool, can play different roles at different times. When helping to get like-related things into the same ballpark, ontologies are easy and quite effective.

(As an aside, it is useful to note here that our efforts with the UMBEL upper-level subject ontology are solely premised on this “roadmap” purpose. In and of itself, UMBEL is not a very complicated explication of the world. But it does provide a comprehensive set of 20,000 subject concepts for orienting quite disparate datasets and information to one another. This very same approach could be replicated and then applied to the granularity of individual domains, kind of like zooming in on Google Maps, to provide similar benefits at smaller scale for domain-specific roadmaps. In fact, that is a common approach we apply in our own client ontologies, which we then also make sure we tie into UMBEL for global orientation.)

Mapping to Other Schema

OK, so with this foundation now built, we can next raise the bar a bit further. Once one begins to express these “world views” formally as an ontology, even with reduced ambitions as presented above, one still ends up with a formal specification of that conceptualization. And, that means, we now also have a basis with standard languages for mapping two disparate or separately developed ontologies to one another.

This is powerful. Through such mapping, we end up, in the memorable phrase of my colleague, Fred Giasson, “exploding the domain.”

Moreover, we also have found a means for stitching together datasets with disparate schema to one another. Voilà: We now have met the Holy Grail of data interoperability.

In my opinion, this is the money shot from all of this effort. But, again, if we set the deployment threshold to the unrealistic levels that some ontology pundits suggest, this payoff is unlikely to happen. We are not trying to state absolute, universal truth about anything nor to be unrealistically comprehensive. All we are trying to do is make defensible assertions that one portion of a world view is similar or related to a portion of a different world view.

Now, does that sound that scary? No, of course not. It is merely a reasonable and pragmatic means for relating two structures together.

A key aspect to this mapping ability is to enrich the description of our concepts with what we call “semsets.” Semsets are a listing of related terms and phrases that provide synonyms, aliases, jargon and related context for alternative ways to describe or bound the concept at hand. This terminological “grist” is the basis for relatively straightforward natural language processing techniques to suggest matches between concepts in different ontologies (which might also be combined with other ontology components such as preferred labels, descriptions or structural placements in the schema).

Like many of the points above, these semsets can be built incrementally and over time as new jargon and terminology is discovered.

Linked Data, with Federated and Comprehensive Data

These techniques of mapping datasets and their ontology structures can be leveraged still further with the proper application of linked data practices. Via linked data, we place our data into Web-accessible (HTTP) networks and give them Web-scalable identifiers (URIs). This means we can now integrate and interoperate with much external public Web data and break down our own internal data silos.

Our instance records can be fleshed out with supplementary sources to provide more comprehensive attibutes and characterizations. Uniformity of treatment and coverage is promoted. Data interoperability is finally at hand.

A key best practice to this, of course, needs to be the recognition that not all data or information is public and not all users have the same roles or should have the same access to different sets of data. Thus, to embrace global mechanisms for data interoperability, there must also be local methods for enforcing access, privacy and confidentiality.

Properly designed ontologies can fulfill this requirement, as well. By organizing information into datasets and setting profiles for access and CRUD (create – read – update – delete) rights, an effective environment for data sharing and federation is established.

Context- and Instance-sensitive Data Display

To this point, we have taken almost an exclusively data- or schema-centric view of ontologies. But, as structures, pure and simple, their structural nature can be exploited in other ways. It is here, frankly, that less is spoken of the potential for ontologies than in the more “conceptual” areas noted above.

The first of these new areas is in instance-sensitive data display. Each instance record is associated with an instance type in a governing ontology. Detecting this type means that context-sensitive display templates can then be invoked.

Detecting that something refers to a city, for example, can invoke a template providing a map, population figures, area size, city governance method and the like. In contrast, detecting an instance as a camera might invoke an entirely different display template focusing on product features or price or store and purchasing locations. Such instance-type displays are common; they are known as “infoboxes” within Wikipedia articles, as one example.

But this power of data display templates can be generalized further. What if we detect our instance represents a camera but do not have a display template specific to cameras? Well, the ontology and simple inferencing can tell us that cameras are a form of digital or optical products, which more generally are part of a product concept, which more generally is a form of a human-made artifact, or similar.

By tracing this inferencing chain from the specifc to the more general we can “fall back” until a somewhat OK display template is discovered, even in the absence of the better and more specific one. Then, if we find we are trying to display information on cameras frequently, we only need take one of the more general, parent templates and specifically modify it for the desired camera attributes. We also keep presentation separate from data so that the styling and presentation mode of these templates is also freely modifiable.

This parallel set of display structures to the domain ontology provides a highly reusable and leveraged data presentation framework. For 30 years organizations have struggled with report generators and all sorts of complicated systems for responsive reporting and data display. When driven by ontologies, this challenge is greatly simplified.

Driving User Interfaces

The careful reader of the above will note that our ontologies now have a number of interesting characteristics, all of which can be leveraged within the user interface. For example, we have:

  • Human-readable labels for our “things”
  • Alternative labels in our semsets that can characterize those same “things”
  • A readable description of each “thing”
  • An organized and logical schema for how each “thing” relates to other things.

This very information, when indexed in a supplementary full-text search engine with faceting capabilities (such as the Solr engine we use), can be leveraged in the user interface for these types of desired UI capabilities:

  • Attribute labels and tooltips
  • Navigation and browsing structures and trees
  • Menu structures
  • Auto-completion of entered data
  • Contextual dropdown list choices
  • Spell checkers
  • Online help systems
  • Etc.

This is absolutely mindblowing power!

We can now design generic tools that do patterned functions. Then, based on the data at hand and the ontologies that describe them, we can now see completely modified and tailored interfaces. And all of this is done without modifying a single line of application code!

Applications in this brave new world now consist of assembling a proper suite of generic tools, and then spending the bulk of our time on describing and characterizing our data via ontologies and refining templates for displaying or reporting the types of specific instances within our current problem space.


All of the points made above are doable and being done today. Properly designed ontologies can readily deliver all of the aspects noted above. Later parts in this ongoing series will address many of those aspects in greater detail.

Ontologies are not magic. Properly done — an important emphasis — ontologies are the pivot point for faster and more adaptable ways of doing business. A simple, pragmatic mindset can help.

Our perspective is that ontologies are really the “flour that gets backed into the cake”. While viewable and definable as their own structures, properly constructed ontologies actually should exist everywhere within applications and contribute everywhere to applications. This is what we mean by “data-driven applications.”

To be sure, we are suggesting a paradigm shift from 30 years of IT frustrations: schema no longer must be fragile; reports no longer must be costly and delayed; and data can finally be made interoperable.

We will continue to give you our best thinking on these topics over the coming weeks and how they might be important to you.

Sound too good to be true? Read the material above again. And, then, we welcome getting your call.

This post is part of an occasional AI3 series on ontology best practices.

[1] As used in knowledge representation or information science, ‘ontology’ is most often defined using Tom Gruber’s “explicit specification of a conceptualization.” See Thomas R. Gruber, 1993. “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications,” in Knowledge Acquisition 5(2): 199-220; see