Posted:October 11, 2011

Structured Dynamics The Need to Enforce Periodic Checkups on Web Properties

Face it, we all get busy and begin to overlook our own needs while we work for others on our jobs. The parable of the cobbler’s children going without shoes says it all.  It means that the shoemaker spends so much time looking after his customers’ needs that he neglects the needs of his own children.

We see the same phenomena in relation to our own personal assets, home repairs and cleaning, and a myriad of chores and background requirements. One way we can overcome these neglects is by scheduling annual or periodic checkups or activities. Spring cleaning is one such effort, as is annual asset portfolio re-balancing or doctor’s appointments or 10,000 mile vehicle servicing.

One of the cobbler’s chores for Structured Dynamics is the periodic care and feeding of our various Web sites. This has actually proven to be a non-trivial exercise, as our properties have grown to exceed 1400 static Web pages across some 30 diverse Web addresses and properties. As our client and code base expands, this exercise is increasingly demanding.

Taking advantage of a small break in the action, we have just completed another one of these reviews and revisions. Interestingly, as I was going through the various sites, I saw that date stamps for prior revisions tended to all occur in the September and October time frame. Last September, for example, SD went through a major redesign and new logo. Apparently, without consciously realizing it, we have been doing our own Web attic cleaning in the Fall.

Thus, as a way to formalize this process for us internally, I thought I’d briefly outline the Web site changes that we have cobbled together for this year. I suspect we’ll be doing another spiffing come Fall 2012.

Rationalizing the Properties

It is kind of frightening to realize that we have allowed our Web properties to grow to about 30 individual sites. This accretion happens gradually: a new initiative or capability arises that seems to warrant its own Web site. Yet each site carries with it a need to develop and maintain, as well as to explain its role and use in the Structured Dynamics information space.

Exclusive of internal development sites or ones dedicated to specific customers, here is the roster of existing SD properties that we have needed to rationalize:

Note that all properties with strike outs have now either been retired or consolidated with other properties. We have reduced the property count by 10, or by a third. Additional consolidations will be forthcoming.

Providing a Consistent Entry to the Various Properties

With the growth of our various Web properties and the diversity of the initiatives behind them, Fred and I have grown increasingly frustrated that our site visitors lacked a consistent way to access and understand these projects. Across all properties, Structured Dynamics has about 6,000 daily visitors or RSS tracking feeds.

Providing a consistent context of what these properties mean and their relation to one another is further compounded by the sheer size of our properties. Excluding dynamically generated pages (such as from search, demonstration of our semantic components, or use of the relation browser), we have on the order of 1400 static Web pages across all properties and blogs. Users may enter our information space via any of these entry points.

The answer to how to provide a consistent context on any Web page throughout our properties resides in the nifty JavaScript popup Fred recently described for his own blog. What we realized is that we could adapt this widget to provide a single overview of SD’s resources, and then add that widget to all of our properties such that it appears as a small tab at the bottom (sometimes side) of all property pages.

Then, when the tab SD Resource tab is clicked, the following popup appears:

So, whenever you are on one of our properties, look for the tab (generally) at the lower right corner of every Web page. That will take you to the common entry point across Structured Dynamics’ Web properties.

Updating the Properties

In this process we also went through some of our existing sites and made content, narrative and navigation changes consistent with this rationalization and consistent entry point. These updates were not nearly as extensive as the full re-designs from one year ago.

New Shoe Designs

With a constant stream of new initiatives and new understandings, it will remain a challenge for us to describe our various products and services. An even greater challenge will be to provide coherent descriptions of how all of these initiatives fit together consistent with our overall vision. One attempt at that is our new Overview page. Meanwhile, of course, we will occasionally be offering new Web goodies and sites as developments warrant. These will need to get integrated into this picture as well.

We think we have taken an itty-bitty step to improving this process with the SD Resources tab widget. Nonetheless, I’m sure that we will continue to craft new shoes to try to find ones that are still yet more comfortable and attractive. Thing is, we may have to wait another year before we get around to it again.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on October 11, 2011 at 3:26 am in Uncategorized | Comments (4)
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Posted:August 15, 2011

World's Tallest Flagpole; see ref [9]The New Paradigm of ‘Substantive Marketing’ for Innovative IT

This decade has clearly marked a sea change in the move of enterprise software from proprietary to open source, as I have recently discussed [1]. It is instructive that only a mere six years ago I was in heated fights with my then Board about open source; today, that seems so quaint and dated.

Also during this period many have noted how open source has changed the capital required to begin a new software startup [2]. Open source both provides the tooling and the components for cobbling together specialty apps and extensions. Six and seven and even eight figure startup costs common just a decade ago have now dropped to four or five figures. When we see the explosion of hundreds of thousands of smartphone apps we are seeing the glowing residue of these additional sea changes. Dropping startup costs by one to three orders of magnitude is truly democratizing innovation.

But something else has been going on that is changing the face of enterprise software (besides consolidation, another factor I also recently commented on). And that factor is “marketing”. Much less commentary is made about this change, but it, too, is greatly lowering costs and fundamentally changing market penetration strategies. That topic — and my personal experience with it — is the focus of this article.

The Obsolete Recent Past

Besides the few remaining big providers of enterprise software — like IBM, Oracle, HP, SAP — most vendors have totally remade their sales practices of just a few years ago. Large sales forces with big commissions and a year to two year sales cycles can no longer be justified when software license fees and the percentage maintenance annuities that flow from them are dropping rapidly. Today’s mantras are doing more with less and doing it faster, hardly consistent with the traditional enterprise software model. Sure, big enterprises, especially big government and big business, have large sunk costs in legacy systems that will continue to be milked by existing vendors. But the flow is constricting with longer-term trends clear to see. The old enterprise software model is obsolete.

Even if it were not dying, it is hard to square huge investments in sales and marketing when product development has become inexpensive and agile. The proliferation of three-letter marketing acronyms for branding “new” product areas and standard formulas for product hype of just a few years ago also feels old and dated. Cozy relationships with conventional trade press pundits and market analysts seem to be diminishing in importance, possibly because the authoritativeness of their influence is also diminishing. It is harder to justify market firm subscription costs when priority budget items are being cut and new information outlets have emerged.

In response to this, many developers have forsaken the enterprise market for the consumer one. Indeed enterprises themselves are looking more and more to the consumer sector and commodity apps for innovation and answers. But, still, problems unique to enterprises remain and how to effectively reach them in this brave new world is today’s marketing problem for enterprise software vendors.

Most entities today, when opining about these challenges, tend to emphasize the need for “laser focus” and “rifle-shot” targeting of prospects. The advice takes the form of: 1) emphasize well-defined verticals; 2) know your market well; and 3) target and go after your likely prospects. Prospect data mining and targeted ad analysis are the proferred elixirs.

But, there is little evidence such refined methods for prospect identification and targeting are really working. Like politicians doing focus groups and opinion polling to capture the desired “message” of their potential electorates, these are all still “push” models of marketing. Yet we are swamped with pushed messages and marketing everywhere we turn. The model is failing.

Besides message overload, there are two issues with laser targeting. First, despite all that we try to know about ready buyers (for enterprise software), we really don’t know if any particular individual is truly needful, in a position to buy, has the authority to buy, or is the right advocate to make the internal sell. Second, though the idea of “laser” carries with it the image of focus and not flailing, it is in fact expensive to identify the targets and send a focused message their way. Because of these issues, decay rates for laser prospects throughout conventional sales pipelines continue to rise.

A New Marketing ParadigmNew Paradigm Roadsign

There has always been the phenomenon of the “fish jumping into the boat“; that is, the unanticipated inbound inquiry from a previously unknown prospect leading to a surprisingly swift sale. But we have seen this phenomenon increase markedly in recent years. Structured Dynamics‘ current customer base — including recurring customers — comes almost exclusively from this source. As we have noted this trend in comparison with more targeted outreach, we have spent much time trying to understand why it is occurring and how we can leverage what Peter Drucker called the “unexpected success” [3].

What we are seeing, I believe, is a shift from sales to marketing, and within marketing from direct or outbound marketing to a new paradigm of marketing. Others have likened this to inbound marketing [4] or content marketing [5] or permission marketing [6]. What we are seeing at Structured Dynamics bears many resemblances to parts of what is claimed for these other approaches, but not all. And, it is also true that what we are seeing may pertain mostly to innovative IT for emerging enterprise markets, and not a generalized paradigm suitable to other products or markets.

For lack of a better term, what we are seeing we can term “substantive marketing”. By this we mean offering valuable content and solutions-oriented systems for free and without restriction. This shares aspects with content marketing. Then, in keeping with the trend for buyers doing their own research and analysis to fulfill their own needs, similar to the premises of inbound or permission marketing, potential consumers can make their own judgments as to relevance and value of our offerings.

Sometimes, of course, some prospects find our approaches and solutions lacking. Sometimes, they may grab what we have offered for free and use them on their own without compensation to us. But where the match is right — and we need to be honest with both ourselves and the customer when it is not — we can better spend the customer’s limited time and resources to tailor our generic solutions to their specific needs. In doing so, we offer higher value (tailored services) while learning better about another spectrum of consumer need that can virtuously enhance our substantive offerings for the next prospect.

So, let’s decompose these components further to see what they can tell us about this new practice of substantive marketing and how to use it as an engine for moving forward.

Substantive Marketing

The Virtuous Cycle Begins with Substantive Solutions

The premise of substantive marketing is to offer square-deal value to the marketplace in the form of solutions-based content. Like content marketing that offers “the creation or sharing of content for the purpose of engaging current and potential consumer bases” [5], substantive marketing goes even further. The whole basis and premise of the approach is to provide substantive content, in one of more of these areas, preferably all:

  • Knowledge — this substantive area includes papers, commentary, survey results or listings of tools and references useful to the target market
  • Analysis — this content area includes unique analysis of market trends, data, technologies or reviews that pertain to the target market
  • Code — this area relates to the provision of open source code and tools, preferably under licenses that allow users to use the software without restriction (two examples are the Apache 2 license and the MIT license)
  • Documentation — a critical substantive area is the documentation in how to install, use, modify or customize these tools, including a prejudice to APIs and tutorial information
  • Methodologies, workflows and best practices — it is important to also discuss how to properly operate and utilize these tools and information. Taking care to document lessons learned and best practices also helps the user community avoid common mistakes and to speed adoption and utility, and
  • Demos — this area involves setting up (and sharing code and procedures for same) demos that show how the code and its methods actually work. Demos also become first use cases to aid the new user in learning and setting up the code bases.

Further, this substantive content is offered without strings, restrictions or customer fill-in forms. The content is not a come on or a teaser. We are not trying to gather leads or prospect names, because we have no intent to dun them with emails or follow-ups.

This substantive content is as complete as can be to enable new users to adopt the information and tools in their current state without further assistance. (In some cases, the information also educates the marketplace in order to prepare future customers for adoption.) Most importantly, this substantive content is offered for free, either open source (for code) or creative commons for documentation and other content. In return, it is fair to request — and we do — attribution when this material is used.

We have previously termed this complete panoply of substantive content a total open solution [7]. Some might find the provision of such robust information crazy: How can we give away the store of our proprietary knowledge and systems?

But we find this kind of thinking old school. In an open source world where so much information is now available online, with a bit of effort customers can find this information anyway. Rather, our mindset is that customers do not want to pay again for what has already been done, but are willing to pay for what can be done with that knowledge for their own specific problems. Offering the complete storehouse of our knowledge in fact signals our interest in only charging the customer for new answers, new value or new formulations. The customers we like to work with feel they are getting an honest, square deal.

Flagpole Venues Help Increase Awareness

Consider your substantive content to be your flag, a unique banner for conveying and packaging your specific brand. It is thus important to find appropriate flagpoles — in the virtual territories that your customers visit — for raising this content high for them to see. Since the role of these flagpoles is to create awareness in potential prospects — who you do not likely know individually or even by group in advance — it makes sense to raise your offerings up on many flagpoles and on the highest flagpoles. Visibility is the object of the approach.

This approach is distinctly not leafletting or cramming links or emails into as many spaces as possible. The idea of substantive marketing is to fly valuable content high enough that desirous potential customers can discover and then inspect the information on their own, and only if they so choose. In this regard, substantive marketing resembles permission marketing [6].

Being visible helps ensure that the needful, questing prospect that you would never have been able to target on your own is able to see and be aware of your offerings. And, since they are seeking information and answers, your collateral needs to be of a similar nature. Solutions and substance are what they are seeking; what you have run up the flagpole should respond to that.

The mindset here is to respect your prospective customers and to allow them to chose to receive and inspect your offerings, but only if they so choose. If flown in the right venues with the right visibility, customers will see your flags and inspect them if they meet their requirements.

Some of the venues at which you can raise your flags include:

  • Blogs — this venue is especially helpful, since you have complete control over content, message, voice and packaging
  • Social networks — the value of social networks is now accepted, and should be a core component of any visibility strategy. However, it is also important to make sure that your contributions are driven by substance and value and do not become part of the cacophonous background noise
  • Vertical media — there are always existing outlets well-read and -respected by your customer propects. Establishing relationships and value with these third-party outlets can extend your reach
  • Web sites — this venue includes your standard Web sites, of course. But, you should also consider setting up specific project-related sites or sites dedicated to documentation (c.f., our TechWiki site of 300+ technical articles) or to methodologies (the excellent MIKE2.0 site is one great example) or to other ways by which particular content (such as tools with the Sweet Tools site) can raise another flag
  • User forums — user discussion groups and forums also become their own attractants for like-interested prospects, and
  • Conferences and tradeshows — while potentially valuable, presence at conferences and tradeshows must be carefully evaluated. Since participation and opportunity costs are high, the venues should be clearly relevant to your market space with likely decision makers in attendance.

The observant reader will have already concluded that each of these venues develops slowly, and therefore raising visibility is generally a slow-and-steady game that requires patience. Start-up vendors backed by venture firms or those looking for quick visibility and cashout will not find this approach suitable. On the other hand, customer prospects looking for answers and self-sustaining solutions are not much interested in flash in the pan vendors, either.

A Model Responsive to the Changing Nature of Customer Prospects

The real drivers for this changing paradigm come from customer prospects. Sophisticated buyers of enterprise IT and instrumental change agents within organizations share most if not all of these characteristics:

  • They are inundated with marketing messages and jaded about hype and “pushed” messages
  • They are generally knowledgeable about their needs and problem spaces and about approximate technologies. They are eager and desirous of learning independently and know that their recommendations affect their personal reputations and standing within their enterprises
  • With the many volatile external and internal changes, including staff reductions and fluid assignments, leadership for new technology adoption can come from many different and unknown corners of the organization; it is extremely difficult to identify and target prospects
  • The economic and competitive environment places a premium on affordability and low-risk evaluations of new technologies
  • Lock-ins of any kind — be it to specific vendors or technologies — are understood as inherently risky. This understanding is raising the importance of open and standards-based approaches
  • Being the subject of a pushy sales effort is distasteful and a negative to an eventual sale. Education and learning, however, is respected
  • Because of all that is at stake, honesty with no bullshit is highly appreciated. If you as a vendor do not offer an appropriate solution or have fulfillment weaknesses, tell the prospect so. Further, tell them who can supply the solution. One never knows when and where the next problem may arise, and providing trustworthy advice can lead to later engagements.

More often than not we find our customers to have already installed and used our existing substantive materials for some time before they approach us about further work. They appreciate the tutorial information and have taught themselves much in advance. By the time we engage, both parties are able to cost-effectively focus on what is truly missing and needed and to deliver those answers in a quick way. Re-engagements tend to occur when a next set of gaps or challenges arise.

Though it may sound trite or even unbelievable to those who have not yet experienced such a relationship, the square deal value offered by substantive marketing can really lead to true partnerships and trust between vendor and customer. We experience it daily with our customers, and vice versa. We also think this is the adaptive approach that our new environment demands.

The Free Path to Open Source and Solutions

Once prospects learn of our substantive offerings, many may decide independently that what we have is not suitable. Others may simply download and use the information on their own, for which we often never know let alone receive revenue. We are completely fine with this, as shown for three different cases.

First, some of these prospects need no more than what we already have. This increases our user base, increases our visibility and often results in contributions to our forums and documentation.

Then, some of these prospects come to learn they need or want more than what our current offerings provide, leading to two possible forks. In one fork, the second case, they may have sufficient skills internally or with other suppliers to extend the system on their own. Some of this flows back to an improved code base or improved installation or documentation bases.

In the other fork, the third case, they may decide to engage us in tailoring a solution for them. That case is the only one of the three that leads to a direct revenue path.

In all three cases we win, and the customer wins. Maybe enterprise software vendors of decades past rue this reality of lower margins and shared benefits; we agree that the absolute profit potential of substantive marketing is much less. But we gladly accept the more enjoyable work and steady revenue relationships resulting from these changes. We are not engaged in some pollyann-ish altruism here, but in a steely-eyed honest brokering that best serves our own self-interest (and fairly that of the customer, as well).

A Square Deal Baseline for Tailored Services

Great IT product does not come from idle musings or dreamed up functionality. It comes solely and directly from solving customer problems. Only via customers can software be refined and made more broadly usable.

A slipstream of those who have previously become aware and tested our offerings will choose to engage our services. This generally takes the form of an inbound call, where the prospect not only qualifies itself, but also establishes the terms and conditions for the sale. They have chosen to select us; they are fish that have jumped into the boat.

To again quote Peter Drucker, “. . . the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available . . .” [8]. This is precisely what I meant earlier about the shift in emphasis from sales to marketing.

Even at this point there may be mismatches in needs and our skills and availabilities. If such is the case, we do not hesitate to say so, and attempt to point the prospect in another direction (from which we also gain invaluable market knowledge). If there is indeed a match, we then proceed to try to find common ground on schedule and budget.

Paradoxically, this square deal and honesty about the readiness and weaknesses of our offerings often leads to forgiveness from our customers. For example, for some time we have lacked automated installation scripts that would make it easier for prospects to install our open semantic framework. But, because of compensating value in other areas, such gaps can be overlooked and tackled later on (indeed, as a current customer is now funding). By not pretending to be everything to everyone, we can offer what we do have without embarrassment and get on with the job of solving problems.

For larger potential engagements, we typically suggest a fixed price initial effort to develop an implementation plan. The interviews and research to support this typical 4- to 6-weeks effort (generally in the $5 K to $10 K range, depending) then result in a detailed fulfillment proposal, with firm tasks, budget and schedule, specific to that customer’s requirements. Just as we respect our prospects’ time and budget, we expect the same and do not conduct these detailed plans without compensation. With respect to fulfillment contracts, we cap contract amount and limit milestone payments to pre-set percentages or time expended, whichever is lower.

This approach ensures we understand the customer’s needs and have budgeted and tasked accordingly. Capped contracts also put the onus on us the contractor to understand our own effort and tasking structures and realities, which leads to better future estimating. For the customer, this approach caps risk and potential exposure, and ensures milestones are being met no matter the time expenditures by us, the contractor. This approach extends our square-deal basis to also embrace risks and payments.

New (and Open Source) Developments Fuel the Substance Pipeline

Thus, when customers engage us, they spend almost solely on new functionality specifically tailored to their needs. In doing so, we suggest they agree to release the new developments they fund as open source. We argue — and customers predominantly agree — that they are already benefitting from lower overall costs because other customers have funded sharable, open source before them. We point out that the new customers that follow them will also be independently creating new functionality, to which they will also later benefit.

(This argument does not apply to specific customer data or ontologies, which are naturally proprietary to the customer. Also, if the customer wants to retain intellectual ownership of extensions, we charge higher development fees.)

Once these new developments are completed, they are fed back into a new baseline of valuable content and code. From this new baseline the cycle of substantive marketing can be augmented anew and perpetuated.

Three Guidelines to Leverage Substantive Marketing

All of these points can really be boiled down to three guidelines for how to make substantive marketing effective:

  • First, whatever your domain or market, provide useful and substantive content. The content you offer is indeed your marketing collateral. Prospective customers can gauge from it directly whether it meets their needs, appears sound and workable, and has value. If you have little of substance to offer, this paradigm is not for you
  • Second, plant many flagpoles and raise your flags high in territories your market prospects are likely to visit. This is a process that requires thoughtfulness and patience. Thoughtfulness, because that is how you determine where to plant your flags. If you yourself are a consumer of what you offer, it is easier to find those venues. And patience, because it takes time to stack valuable content upon valuable content in order to raise visibility
  • And, third, be honest and respectful. Help your prospect work within available budget to achieve the most possible at lowest risk. And help them find others, if need be, who might be better able than you to truly solve their problems.

What we are finding — as we continue to refine our understanding of this new paradigm — is that through substantive marketing the fish are finding us and they sometimes jump into the boat. We like our enterprise customers to pre-qualify themselves and already be “sold” once they knock on the door. One never knows when that phone might ring or the email might come in. But when it does, it often results in a collaborative customer as a partner who is a joy to work with to solve exciting new problems.


[1] M.K. Bergman, 2011. “Declining IT Innovation in the Enterprise,” in AI3:::Adaptive Innovation blog, January 17, 2011. See http://www.mkbergman.com/940/declining-it-innovation-in-the-enterprise/.
[2] Paul Graham has been the most prominent observer of this scene; see P. Graham, 2008. “Why There Aren’t Any More Googles,” April 2008 (see http://www.paulgraham.com/googles.html) and subsequent articles.
[3] See esp. Peter F. Drucker, 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurialship: Practice and Principals, Harper & Row, New York, NY, 277 pp.
[4] Inbound marketing is a marketing strategy that focuses on getting found by customers. According to David Meerman Scott, inbound marketers “earn their way in” (via publishing helpful information on a blog etc.) in contrast to outbound marketing where they used to have to “buy, beg, or bug their way in” (via paid advertisements, issuing press releases in the hope they get picked up by the trade press, or paying commissioned sales people, respectively). Brian Halligan, cofounder and CEO of HubSpot, claims he first coined the term of inbound marketing.
[5] Content marketing is an umbrella term encompassing all marketing formats that involve the creation or sharing of content for the purpose of engaging current and potential consumer bases. In contrast to traditional marketing methods that aim to increase sales or awareness through interruption techniques, content marketing subscribes to the notion that delivering high-quality, relevant and valuable information to prospects and customers drives profitable consumer action. See also Holger Shulze, 2011. B2B Content Marketing Trends slideshow, see http://www.slideshare.net/hschulze/b2b-content-marketing-report.
[6] Seth Godin coined the term permission marketing wherein marketers obtain permission before advancing to the next step in the purchasing process. It is mostly used by online marketers, notably email marketers and search marketers, as well as certain direct marketers who send a catalog in response to a request. Godin contrasts this approach to traditional “interruption marketing” where messages are sent without prior permission.
[7] See the three-part series, M.K. Bergman, 2010. “Listening to the Enterprise: Total Open Solutions,” “Part 1,” “Part 2” and “Part 3,” AI3:::Adaptive Information blog, May 12 – 31, 2010.
[8] Peter F. Drucker, 1974. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 864. ISBN 0-06-011092-9.
[9] The intro photo is of the world’s tallest flagpole (at 165 m), in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. The photo is courtesy of CentralAsiaOnline.com.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on August 15, 2011 at 2:25 am in Uncategorized | Comments (3)
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Posted:May 16, 2011

A Video Introduction to a New Online Ontology Editor and Manager

Structured Dynamics is pleased to unveil structOntology — its ontology manager application within the conStruct open source semantic technology suite. We are doing so via a video, which provides a bit more action about this exciting new app.

structOntology has been on our radar for more than two years. But, it was only in embracing the OWLAPI some eight months back that we finally saw our way clear to how to implement the system.

The app, superbly developed by Fred Giasson, has many notable advantages — some of which are covered by the video — but two deserve specific attention:  1) the superior search function (if you have been using Protégé or similar, you will love the fact this search indexes everything, courtesy of Solr); and 2) the availability of its functionality directly within the applications that are driven by the ontologies. Of course, there’s other cool stuff too!:

 

 

(If you have trouble seeing this, here is the direct YouTube link or an alternate local Flash version if you can not access YouTube.)

More information on structOntology will be forthcoming over the coming weeks. We will be posting it as open source as part of the Open Semantic Framework by early summer.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on May 16, 2011 at 9:06 pm in Uncategorized | Comments (3)
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Posted:April 25, 2011

Advances in How to Transfer Semantic Technologies to Enterprise Users structWFS

For some time, our mantra at Structured Dynamics has been, “We’re successful when we are not needed. [1]

In support of this vision, we have been key developers of an entire stack of semantic technologies useful to the enterprise, the open semantic framework (OSF); we have formulated and contributed significant open source deployment guidance to the MIKE2.0 methodology for semantic technologies in the enterprise called Open SEAS; we have developed useful structured data standards and ontologies; and we have made massive numbers of free how-to documents and images available for download on our TechWiki. Today, we add further to these contributions with our workflows guidance. All of these pieces contribute to what we call the total open solution.

Prior documentation has described the overall architecture or layered approach of the open semantic framework (OSF). Those documents are useful, but lack a practical understanding of how the pieces fit together or how an OSF instance is developed and maintained.

This new summary overviews a series of seven different workflows for various aspects of developing and maintaining an OSF (based on Drupal) [2]. In addition, each workflow section also cross-references other key documentation on the TechWiki, as well as points to possible tools that might be used for conducting each specific workflow.

Overview

Seven different workflows are described, as shown in the diagram below. Each of the workflows is color-coded and related to the other workflows. The basic interaction with an OSF instance tends to occur from left-to-right in the diagram, though the individual parts are not absolutely sequential. As each of the seven specific workflows is described below, it is keyed by the same color-coded portion of the overall workflow.

OSF Workflow

Each of the component workflows is itself described as a series of inter-relating activities or tasks.

Installation Workflow

Installation is mostly a one-time effort and proceeds in a more-or-less sequential basis. As various components of the stack are installed, they are then configured and tested for proper installation.

The installation guide is the governing document for this process, with quite detailed scripts and configuration tests to follow. The blue bubbles in the diagram represent the major open source software components of Virtuoso (RDF triple store), Solr (full-text search) and Drupal (content management system).

Install Workflow

Another portion of this workflow is to set up the tools for the backoffice access and management, such as PuTTY and WinSCP (among others).

Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Configure & Presentation Workflow

One of the most significant efforts in the overall OSF process is the configuration and theming of the host portal, generally based on Drupal.

The three major clusters of effort in this workflow are the design of the portal, including a determination of its intended functionality; the setting of the content structure (stubbing of the site map) for the portal; and determining user groups and access rights. Each of these, in turn, is dependent on one or more plug-in modules to the Drupal system.

Some of these modules are part of the conStruct series of OSF modules, and others are evaluated and drawn from the more than 8000 third-party plug-in modules to Drupal.

Configure Workflow

The Design aspect involves picking and then modifying a theme for the portal. These may start as one of the open source existing Drupal themes, as well as those more specifically recommended for OSF. If so, it will likely be necessary to do some minor layout modifications on the PHP code and some CSS (styling) changes. Theming (skinning) of the various semantic component widgets (see below) also occurs as part of this workflow.

The Content Structure aspect involves defining and then stubbing out placeholders for eventual content. Think of this step as creating a site map structure for the OSF site, including major Drupal definitions for blocks, Views and menus. Some of the entity types are derived from the named entity dictionaries used by a given project.

More complicated User assignments and groups are best handled through a module such as Drupal’s Organic Groups. In any event, determination of user groups (such as anonymous, admins, curators, editors, etc.) is a necessary early determination, though these may be changed or modified over time.

For site functionality, Modules must be evaluated and chosen to add to the core system. Some of these steps and their configuration settings are provided in the guidelines for setting up Drupal document.

None of the initial decisions “lock in” eventual design and functionality. These may be modified at any time moving forward.

Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Structured Data Workflow

Of course, a key aspect of any OSF instance is the access and management of structured data.

There are basically two paths for getting structured data into the system. The first, involving (generally) smaller datasets is the manual conversion of the source data to one of the pre-configured OSF import formats of RDF, JSON, XML or CSV. These are based on the irON notation; a good case study for using spreadsheets is also available.

The second path (bottom branch) is the conversion of internal structured data, often from a relational data store. Various converters and templates are available for these transformations. One excellent tool is FME from Safe Software (representing the example shown utilizing a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) data store), though a very large number of options exist for extract, transform and load.

In the latter case, procedures for polling for updates, triggering notice of updates, and only extracting the deltas for the specific information changed can help reduce network traffic and upload/conversion/indexing times.

Structured Data Workflow
Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Content Workflow

The structured data from the prior workflow process is then matched with the remaining necessary content for the site. This content may be of any form and media (since all are supported by various Drupal modules), but, in general, the major emphasis is on text content.

Existing text content may be imported to the portal or new content can be added via various WYSIWYG graphical editors for use within Drupal. (The excellent WYWIWYG Drupal module provides an access point to a variety of off-the-shelf, free WYSIWYG editors; we generally use TinyMCE but multiples can also be installed simultaneously).

The intent of this workflow component is to complete content entry for the stubs earlier created during the configuration phase. It is also the component used for ongoing content additions to the site.

Content Workflow

Content that is tagged by the scones tagger is done so based on the concepts in the domain ontology (see below) and the named entities (as contained in “dictionaries”) used by a given project. Once tagged, this information can also now be related to the other structured data in the system.

Once all of this various content is entered into the system, it is then available for access and manipulation by the various conStruct modules (see figure above) and semantic component widgets (see below).

Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Ontologies Workflow

Though the next flowchart below appears rather complicated, there are really only three tasks that most OSF administrators need worry about with respect to ontologies:

  1. Adding a concept to the domain ontology (a class) and setting its relationships to other concepts
  2. Adding a dataset attribute (data characteristic) for various dataset records, or
  3. Adding or changing an annotation for either of these things, such as the labels or descriptions of the thing.

In actuality, of course, editing, modifying or deleting existing information is also important, but they are easier subsets of activities and user interfaces to the basic add (“create”) functions.

The OSF interface provides three clean user interfaces to these three basic activities [3].

These basic activities may be applied to the three major governing ontologies in any OSF installation:

  • The domain ontology, which captures the conceptual description of the instance’s domain space
  • The semantic components ontology (SCO), which sets what widgets may display what kinds of data, and
  • irON for the instance record attributes and metadata (annotations).

All of the OSF ontology tools work off of the OWLAPI as the intermediary access point. The ontologies themselves are indexed as structured data (RDF with Virtuoso) or full text (Solr) for various search, retrieval and reasoning activities.

Ontologies Workflow

Because of the central use of the OWLAPI, it is also possible to use the Protégé editor/IDE environment against the ontologies, which also provides reasoners and consistency checking.

Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Filter & Select Workflow

The filter and select activities are driven by user interaction, with no additional admin tools required. This workflow is actually the culmination of all of the previous sequences in that it exposes the structured data to users, enables them to slice-and-dice it, and then to view it with a choice of relevant widgets (semantic components).

For example, see this animation:

Animated Filtering and Selection Workflow

Considerable more detail and explanation is available for these semantic components.

Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Maintenance Workflow

The ongoing maintenance of an OSF instance is mostly a standard Drupal activity. Major activities that may occur include moderating comments; rotating or adding new content; managing users; and continued documentation of the site for internal tech transfer and training. If the portal embraces other aspects of community engagement (social media), these need to be handled as part of this workflow as well.

All aspects of the site and its constituent data may be changed, or added to at any time.

Maintenance Workflow
Click here to see the tools associated with this workflow sequence, as described in the TechWiki desktop tools document.

Moving from Here

Total Open SolutionWhen first introduced in our three-part series, we noted the interlocking pieces that constituted the total open solution of the open semantic framework (OSF) (see right). We also made the point — unfortunately still true today — that the relative maturity and completeness of all of these components still does not allow us to achieve fully, “We’re successful when we are not needed.”

As a small firm that is committed to self-funding via revenues, Structured Dynamics is only able to add to its stable of open source software and to develop methodologies and provide documentation based on our client support. Yet, despite our smallness, our superb client support has enabled us to aggressively and rapidly add to all four components of this total open solution. This newest series of ongoing workflow documents (plus some very significant expansions and refinements of the OSF code base) is merely the latest example of this dynamic.

Through judicious picking of clients (and vice versa), and our insistence that new work and documentation be open sourced because it itself has benefitted from prior open source, we and our client partners have been making steady progress to this vision of enterprises being able to adopt and install semantic solutions on their own. Inch-by-inch we are getting there.

The status of our vision today is that we are still needed in most cases to help formulate the implementation plan and then guide the initial set-up and configuration of the OSF. This support typically includes ontology development, data conversion and overall component integration. While it is true that some parties have embraced the OSF code and documentation and are implementing solutions on their own, this still requires considerable commitment and knowledge and skills in semantic technologies.

The great news about today’s status is that — after initial set-up and configuration — we are now able to transfer the technology to the client and walk away. Tools, documentation, procedures and workflows are now adequate for the client to extend and maintain their OSF instance on their own. This great news includes a certification process and program for transferring the technology to client staff and assessing their proficiency in using it.

We have been completely open about our plans and our status. In our commitment to our vision of success, much work is still needed on the initial install and configure steps and on the entire area of ontology creation, extension and mapping [4]. We are working hard to bridge these gaps. We welcome additional partners that share with us the vision of complete, turnkey frameworks — including all aspects of total open solutions. Inch-by-inch we are approaching the realization of a vision that will fundamentally change how every enterprise can leverage its existing information assets to deliver competitive advantage and greater value for all stakeholders. You are welcome aboard!


[1] This has been the thematic message on Structured Dynamics‘ Web site for at least two years. The basic idea is to look at open source semantic technologies from the perspective of the enterprise customer, and then to deliver all necessary pieces to enable that customer to install, deploy and maintain the OSF stack on its own. The sentiment has infused our overall approach to technology development, documentation, technology transfer and attention to methodologies.
[2] The first version of this article appeared as Workflow Perspectives on OSF on the OpenStructs TechWiki on April 19, 2011.
[3] The current release of OSF does not yet have these components included; they will be released to the open source SVNs by early summer.
[4] The best summary of the vision for where ontology development needs to head is provided by the Normative Landscape of Ontology Tools article on the TechWiki; see especially the second figure in that document.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on April 25, 2011 at 1:45 am in Uncategorized | Comments (1)
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Posted:November 15, 2010

UMBEL Vocabulary and Reference Concept OntologySignificant Upgrades, Changes Based on Two Years of Use

Structured Dynamics and Ontotext are pleased to announce the latest release of UMBEL, version 0.80. It has been more than a year since the last update of UMBEL, and well past earlier announced targets for this upgrade. UMBEL was first publicly released as version 0.70 on July 16, 2008.

UMBEL (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer) has two roles. It is firstly a vocabulary for building reference ontologies to guide the interoperation of domain information. It is secondly a reference ontology in its own right that contains about 21,000 general reference concepts. With more than two years of practical experience with UMBEL, much has been learned.

This learning has now been reflected into five major changes for the system, embodying numerous minor changes. I summarize these major changes below. The formal release of UMBEL v. 0.80 is also being accompanied by a complete revamping and updating of the project’s Web site. I hope you will find these changes as compelling and exciting as we do.

In the broader context, it is probably best to view this release as but the interim first step of a two-step release sequence leading to UMBEL version 1.00. We are on track to release version 1.00 by the end of this year. This second step will include a complete mapping to the PROTON upper-level ontology and the re-organization and categorization of Wikipedia content into the UMBEL structure. We anticipate the pragmatic challenges in this massive effort will also inform some further refinements to UMBEL itself, which will also lead to further changes in its specification.

Nonetheless, UMBEL v. 0.80 does embody most of the language and structural changes anticipated over this evolution. It is fully ready for use and evaluation; it will, for example, be incorporated into a next version of FactForge. But, do be aware that the major revisions discussed herein are subject to further refinements as the efforts leading to version 1.00 are culminated over the next few weeks.

Let’s now overview these major changes in UMBEL v. 0.80.

Major Change #1: Clarification of Dual Role

The genesis of UMBEL more than three years ago was the recognition that data interoperability on the semantic Web depended on shared reference concepts to link related content. We spent much effort to construct such a reference structure with about 21,000 concepts. That purpose remains.

But, the way in which we created this structure — its vocabulary — has also proven to have value in its own right. The same basic way that we constructed the original UMBEL we have now applied to multiple, specific domain ontologies. With use, it has become clear that the vocabulary for creating reference ontologies is on an equal footing to the reference concepts themselves.

With this understanding has come clarity of role and description of UMBEL. With version 0.80, we now have explicitly split and defined these roles and files.

The UMBEL Vocabulary

Thus, UMBEL’s first purpose is to provide a general vocabulary (the UMBEL Vocabulary) of classes and predicates for describing domain ontologies, with the specific aim of promoting interoperability with external datasets and domains. It is usable exclusive of the UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology.

The UMBEL Vocabulary recognizes that different sources of information have different contexts and different structures. A meaningful vocabulary is necessary that can express potential relationships between two information sources with respect to their differences in structure and scope. By nature, these connections are not always exact. Means for expressing the “approximateness” of relationships are essential.

The vocabulary has been greatly simplified from earlier versions (see Major Change #2 below); it now defines two classes:

  • RefConcept
  • SuperType

These are explained further below. And, the vocabulary has 10 properties:

  • isAbout
  • isRelatedTo
  • isLike
  • hasMapping
  • hasCharacteristic
  • isCharacteristicOf
  • preflabel
  • altLabel
  • hiddenLabel
  • definition.

(Note, the latter four are also in SKOS; see [1].)

In addition, UMBEL re-uses certain properties from external vocabularies. These classes and properties are used to instantiate the UMBEL Reference Concept ontology (see next), and to link Reference Concepts to external ontology classes. For more detail on the vocabulary see Part I: Vocabulary Specification in the specifications.

The UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology

The second purpose of UMBEL is to provide a coherent framework of broad subjects and topics, the “reference concepts” or RefConcepts, expressed as the UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology. The RefConcepts act as binding nodes for mapping relevant Web-accessible content, also with the specific aim of promoting interoperability and to reason over a coherent reference structure and its linked resources. UMBEL presently has about 21,000 of these reference concepts drawn from the Cyc knowledge base, which are organized into more than 30 mostly disjoint SuperTypes (see Major Change #3).

The UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology is, in essence, a content graph of subject nodes related to one another via broader-than and narrower-than relations. In turn, these internal UMBEL RefConcepts may be related to external classes and individuals (instances and named entities) via a set of relational, equivalent, or alignment predicates (the UMBEL Vocabulary, see above).

The actual RefConcepts used are the least changed part in UMBEL from previous versions, and still have the same identifiers as prior versions. The Reference Concept Ontology now uses a recently updated release of the OpenCyc KB v3. Cycorp also added some additional mapping predicates in this release that allows items such as fields of study to be added to the structure. (Thanks, Cycorp!)

Here is a large-graph view of the 21,000 reference concepts in the ontology (click to expand; large file):

UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology

More detail on the RefConcepts is provided in Part II: Reference Concepts Specification of the full specifications.

Major Change #2: Reference Concepts and Predicate Simplification

Another set of major changes was the simplification and streamlining of the predicates and construction of the UMBEL Vocabulary [2]. Again, the specifications detail these changes, but the significant ones include:

Natural World Natural Phenomena
Natural Substances
Earthscape
Extraterrestrial
Living Things Prokaryotes
Protists & Fungus
Plants
Animals
Diseases
Person Types
Human Activities Organizations
Finance & Economy
Society
Activities
Time-related Events
Time
Human Works Products
Food or Drink
Drugs
Facilities
Human Places Geopolitical
Workplaces, etc.
Information Chemistry (n.o.c)
Audio Info
Visual Info
Written Info
Structured Info
Notations & References
Numbers
Descriptive Attributes
Classificatory Abstract-level
Topics/Categories
Markets & Industries
Dimensions and SuperTypes
  • Changed the name of ‘Subject Concepts’ (SubjectConcept, or SC) to ‘Reference Concepts’ (RefConcept, or RC). The umbel:SubjectConcept class got deprecated, and the umbel:RefConcept class got added. As noted by many practitioners, the rather tortured use of the earlier “subject concepts” was questioned. The change in this new version reflects the actual reference use of the concepts and ontologies that employ them
  • Dropped the “SemSet” class, and replaced the same idea of providing multiple tagging options via the best practice of the use of umbel:preLabel and multiple umbel:altLabels and umbel:hiddenLabels. This simplifies the language and brings usage into conformance with standard practice and reasoners
  • With the addition of SuperTypes (see next Major Change), dropped the distinction for “abstract concepts” and rolled their earlier use into the standard RefConcepts
  • The simplification due to OWL 2 metamodeling (see Major Change #4) enabled the removal of many earlier predicates and their inverse properties,
  • With experience gained through linking datasets and their attributes to ontologies [3], added predicates (hasCharacteristic and isCharacteristicOf) for relating external properties, and
  • Many other streamlining changes and improvements to property specifications.

See further the Part II in the full specifications.

Major Change #3: SuperTypes

Shortly after the first public release of UMBEL, it was apparent that the 21,000 reference concepts tended to “cluster” into some natural groupings. Further, upon closer investigation, it was also apparent that most of these concepts were disjoint with one another. As subsequent analysis showed, more fully detailed in the Annex G document, fully 75% of the reference concepts in the UMBEL ontology are disjoint with one another.

Natural clusters provide a tractable way to access and manage some 21,000 items. And, large degrees of disjointedness between concepts also can lead to reasoning benefits and faster processing and selection of those items.

For these reasons a dedicated analysis to analyze and assign all UMBEL reference concepts to a new class of SuperTypes was undertaken. SuperTypes are now a major enhancement to UMBEL v. 0.80. The assignment results and the SuperType specification are discussed in Part II, with full analysis results in Annex G.

In addition, all of these SuperTypes are clustered into nine “dimensions”, which are useful for aggregation and organizational purposes, but which have no direct bearing on logic assertions or disjointedness testing. These nine dimensions, with their associated SuperTypes, are shown in the table to the right. Note the last two dimensions (and four SuperTypes), shown in italics, are by definition non-disjoint.

The construct of the SuperType may be applied to any domain ontology constructed with the UMBEL Vocabulary. The UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology includes all disjoint assertions for all of its RefConcepts.

Major Change #4: OWL 2 Compliance

One of the most challenging improvements in the new UMBEL version 0.80 was to make its vocabulary and ontology compliant with the new OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. We wanted to convert to OWL 2 in order to:

  • Use OWL reasoners
  • Load the full UMBEL into the Protégé 4 ontology editor
  • Use the OWL API, consistent with many other ontology tools we are pursuing, and
  • Take advantage of a neat trick in OWL 2 called “punning“.

The latter reason is the most important given the reference role of UMBEL and ontologies based on the UMBEL Vocabulary. It is not unusual to want to treat things either as a class or an instance in an ontology. Among other aspects, this is known as metamodeling and it can be accomplished in a number of ways. “Punning” is one metamodeling technique that importantly allows us to use concepts in ontologies as either classes or instances, depending on context.

To better understand why we should metamodel, let’s look at a couple of examples, both of which combine organizing categories of things and then describing or characterizing those things. This dual need is common to most domains [4].

As one example, let’s take a categorization of apes as a kind of mammal, which is then a kind of animal. In these cases, ape is a class, which relates to other classes, and apes may also have members, be they particular kinds of apes or individual apes. Yet, at the same time, we want to assert some characteristics of apes, such as being hairy, two legs and two arms, no tails, capable of walking bipedally, with grasping hands, and with some being endangered species. These characteristics apply to the notion of apes as an instance.

As another example we may have the category of trucks, which may further be split into truck types, brands of trucks, type of engine, and so forth. Yet, again, we may want to characterize that a truck is designed primarily for the transport of cargo (as opposed to automobiles for people transport), or that trucks may have different drivers license requirements or different license fees than autos. These descriptive properties refer to trucks as an instance.

These mixed cases combine both the organization of concepts in relation to one another and with respect to their set members, with the description and characterization of these concepts as things unto themselves. This is a natural and common way to express most any domain of interest. It is also a general requirement for a reference ontology, as we use in the sense of UMBEL.

When we combine this “punning” aspect of OWL 2 with our standard way of relating concepts in a hierarchical manner, this general view of the predicates within UMBEL emerges (click to expand):

UMBEL Predicates - click to expand

On the left-hand side (quadrants A and C) is the “class” view of the structure; the right-hand side is the “individual” (or instance) view of the structure (quadrants B and D). These two views represent alternative perspectives for looking at the UMBEL reference concepts based on metamodeling.

The top side of the diagram (quadrants A and B) is an internal view of UMBEL reference concepts (RefConcept) and their predicates (properties). This internal view applies to the UMBEL Reference Concept Ontology or to domain ontologies based on the UMBEL Vocabulary. These relationships show how RefConcepts are clustered into SuperTypes or how hierarchical relationships are established between Reference Concepts (via the skos:narrowerTransitive and skos:broaderTransitive relations). The concept relationships and their structure is a “class” view (quadrant A); treating these concepts as instances in their own right and relating them to SKOS is provided by the right-hand “individual” (instance) view (quadrant B).

The bottom of the diagram (quadrants C and D) shows either classes or individuals in external ontologies. The key mapping predicates cross this boundary (the broad dotted line) between UMBEL-based ontologies and external ontologies. See further Part I in the full specification for more detailed discussed of this figure and its relation to metamodelling.

Major Change #5: Documentation and Packaging

These changes also warranted better documentation and a better project Web site. From a documentation standpoint, the organization was simplified between the actual specifications and related annexes. Also, because of a more collaborative basis resulting from the new partnership with Ontotext, we also established an internal wiki following TechWiki designs. Initial authoring occurs there, with final results re-purposed and published on the project Web site.

The UMBEL Web site also underwent a major upgrade. It is now based on Drupal, and therefore will be able to embrace our conStruct advances in visualization and access over time. We also posted the full Reference Concept Ontology as an OWLDoc portal.

We feel these changes have now resulted in a clean and easy-to-maintain framework for the next phase in UMBEL’s growth and maturation.

Next Steps and Version

As noted in the intro, this version is but an interim step to the pending next release of UMBEL v. 1.00. This next version will provide mappings to leading ontologies and knowledge bases, as well as the upgrade of existing Web services and other language support features. Intended production or commercial uses would best await this next version.

However, the current version 0.80 is fully consistent and OWL 2-compliant. It loads and can be reasoned over with OWL 2 reasoners (see those available with Protégé 4.1, for example). We encourage you to download, test and comment upon this version. Specifics are:

As co-editors, Frédérick Giasson and I are extremely enthused about the changes and cleanliness of version 0.80. It is already helping our client work. We think these improvements are a good harbinger for UMBEL version 1.00 to come by the end of the year. We hope you agree.


[1] Some relevant SKOS properties are now shown in the UMBEL namespace. This is a technical issue with regard to SKOS needing to have a separate namespace for its DL version, which has been brought up with the relevant Work Group individuals at the W3C. As soon as this oversight is rectified, the SKOS predicates now in UMBEL will be deprecated in favor of the appropriate ones in SKOS.
[2] We’d especially like to thank Jack Park for a series of critical email exchanges in November 2008 regarding terminology and purpose. We are, of course, solely responsible for the changes we did invoke.
[3] See, for example, the MyPeg.ca site, with its richness of indicator and demographic data. UMBEL co-editors Bergman and Giasson have each blogged about this site.
[4] Much of this material is drawn from M.K. Bergman, “Metamodeling in Domain Ontologies,” AI3:::Adaptive Information blog, Sept 20, 2010; see http://www.mkbergman.com/913/metamodeling-in-domain-ontologies/. In the reference ontologies that are the focus here, we often want to treat our concepts as both classes and instances of a class. This is known as “metamodeling” or “metaclassing” and is enabled by “punning” in OWL 2. For example, here a case cited on the OWL 2 wiki entry on “punning“:
People sometimes want to have metaclasses. Imagine you want to model information about the animal kingdom. Hence, you introduce a class a:Eagle, and then you introduce instances of a:Eagle such as a:Harry.
(1) a:Eagle rdf:type owl:Class
(2) a:Harry rdf:type a:Eagle
Assume now that you want to say that “eagles are an endangered species”. You could do this by treating a:Eagle as an instance of a metaconcept a:Species, and then stating additionally that a:Eagle is an instance of a:EndangeredSpecies. Hence, you would like to say this:
(3) a:Eagle rdf:type a:Species
(4) a:Eagle rdf:type a:EndangeredSpecies.
This example comes from Boris Motik, 2005. “On the Properties of Metamodeling in OWL,” paper presented at ISWC 2005, Galway, Ireland, 2005. For some other examples, see Bernd Neumayr and Michael Schrefl, 2009. “Multi-Level Conceptual Modeling and OWL (Draft, 2 May – Including Full Example)”; see http://www.dke.jku.at/m-owl/most09_22_full.pdf.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on November 15, 2010 at 1:54 am in Uncategorized | Comments (3)
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