Posted:January 20, 2014

Open Semantic Framework New OSF Platform Leapfrogs Earlier Releases in Features and Capabilities

After nearly five years of concentrated development — including the past 20 months of quiet, background efforts — Structured Dynamics is proud to announce version 3.0 of its open-source Open Semantic Framework. OSF is a turnkey platform targeted to enterprises to bring interoperability to their information assets, achieved via a layered architecture of semantic technologies. OSF can integrate information from documents to Web pages and standard databases. Its broad functions range from information ingest and tagging to search and data management to publishing.

Until today, the version available for download was OSF version 1.x. While capable as an enterprise platform — indeed, it has been in use by a number of leading global enterprises since development first began — the capability of the platform was spotty and required consulting expertise to configure and set-up. SD was hired by Healthdirect Australia (HDA) nearly two years ago to enhance OSF’s capabilities and integrate it more closely with the Drupal open-source content management system, among other modern enterprise requirements. The OSF from those developments — the non-public version 2.0 specific to HDA — has now been generalized for broader public use with today’s public announcement of version 3.0.

A More Complete Enterprise Platform

HDA's healthinsite Portal

Not unlike many large organizations, HDA had specific enterprise requirements when it began its recent initiative. Included in these were stringent security, broad use of proven open-source applications, governance and workflow procedures, and strict content authoring and management guidelines. These requirements further needed to express themselves via a sequence of deployment and testing environments, all conducted by a multi-vendor support group following agile development practices.

These requirements placed a premium on performance, scalability and interoperability, all subject to repeatable release procedures and scripts. OSF’s initial development as a more-or-less standalone platform needed to accommodate an enterprise-wide management model involving many players, environments and applications. Prior decisions based on OSF alone now needed to consider and bridge modern enterprise development and deployment practices.

Tighter integration with Drupal was one of these requirements (see next section), but other OSF changes necessary to accommodate this environment included:

  • A new security layer — the initial OSF security model was based on IP authentication. Given the sensitivity of the health data managed by HDA, such a simplistic approach was unacceptable. The actual HDA deployment relied on a third-party security application. However, what was learned from that resulted in a key-based access and validation model in the OSF v 3.0 update
  • A new revisioning system — content authoring and governance required multiple checks in the workflow, and requirements to review prior edits and invoke possible rollbacks. The result was to add a completely new revisioning capability to OSF
  • Middleware integration and APIs — in a multi-vendor environment, OSF operates in part as a central repository for all system information, which third parties must more readily and easily be able to access. Thus, besides the security aspects, a much improved programmatic API and a generalized search API were added to the OSF platform
  • New, additional Web services — the requirements above meant that seven new OSF Web services were added to the system, bringing the total number of current Web services to 27
  • New caching layer — because of its Web-service design, information access and mediation occurs via a large number of endpoint queries, many of which are patterned and repeated. To improve overall performance, a new caching layer was added to OSF that significantly improved performance and reduced access burdens on the OSF engines
  • Workflow integration — improved workflow sequences and screens were required to capture workflow and goverance demands, and
  • Multilingual support — like most larger organizations, HDA has a diversity of native languages throughout its user base. Though OSF had initially been explicitly designed to support multilinguality, specific procedures and capabilities were put in place to more easily support multiple languages in OSF.

Tighter Integration with Drupal

When Fred Giasson and I first designed and architected the Open Semantic Framework in 2009, we made the conscious decision to loosely couple OSF with the initial user interface and content management system, Drupal. We did so thinking that perhaps other CMS frameworks would be cloned onto OSF over time.

Time has not proven this assumption correct. Client experience and HDA’s interests suggested the wisdom of a tighter coupling to Drupal. This shift arose because of the great flexibility of Drupal with its tens of thousands of add-on modules and its ecosystem of capable developers and designers. Our early decision to keep Drupal at arm’s length was making it more difficult to manage an OSF instance. Existing Drupal developers were not able to employ their Drupal expertise to manage OSF portals.

We pivoted on this error by tightening the coupling to Drupal, which involved a number of discrete activities:

  • Upgrade to Drupal 7 — earlier versions of OSF used Drupal 6. We migrated the code base to Drupal 7. That, plus the other Drupal changes noted below, resulted in re-writing about 80% of the OSF code base related to Drupal
  • Alternative Drupal data storage — Drupal’s own evolution in version 7 (and continuing with version 8) is to abstract its underlying information model around entities and fields, abstractions that are much better aligned with OSF’s RDF data model. As these entity and field changes were exposed in Drupal APIs, it was possible for us to write an entirely new information model underlying Drupal. Drupal administrators using OSF are now able to use OSF solely as the data model underneath Drupal (rather than the more standard MySQL)  or any mixed portions in between. The typical OSF for Drupal design now uses OSF for all content storage, with MySQL reserved for internal Drupal settings (à la MVC)
  • Drupal connectors — certain common or core Drupal modules, such as Fields, Entities, Search, and Views, are either common utilities for Drupal developers or are themselves core bases for third-party modules. Because of their centrality, SD developed a series of “connectors” that enable these modules to be used as is while transparently communicating with and writing to OSF. Thus, Drupal developers can use these familiar capabilities without needing particular OSF knowledge
  • Major updates to Drupal modules — because of the changes above, the existing OSF Drupal modules (called conStruct in the earlier versions) were updated to take advantage of the common terminology and tighter integration
  • Major updates to Drupal widgets — similarly, the standard OSF data and visualization widgets used with Drupal (called Semantic Components in the earlier versions) were also updated to work in this more tightly integrated environment.

Expanded Search Capabilities and Web Services

Some of the extended capabilities in OSF v 3.0 are noted above, including the expanded roster of Web services. However, the OSF Search Web service, which is by far the most used OSF endpoint, received massive improvements in this latest release.

First, OSF Search now uses a new query parser, which provides the capability to change the ranking of search results by boosting how specific query components get scored. Types, attributes, datasets or counts may be used to vary any given search result, including different occurrences on the same page. It is also now possible to add restrictions to the search queries, including restricting results to a specified set of attributes.

This flexibility is highly useful wherein certain structured pages contain blocks or sections with patterned search results. This structuring leads to the ability to create generic page templates, wherein search queries and results vary within the layout. An “events” block may score differently than, say, a “related topics” block, all of which in turn can respond to a given context (say, “cancer” versus “automobiles”) for a given page (and its template).

These repeated patterns lend themselves to the use of reusable “search profiles,” which are predefined queries that may include context variables. These profiles, in turn, can be named and placed on page layouts. Existing profiles may be recalled or invoked to become patterns for still further profiles. The flexibility of these search profiles is immense, and the parameters used in constructing them can be quite extensive.

Thus, OSF version 3.0 includes the new Query Builder module. Via an intuitive selection interface, users may construct search queries of any complexity, and then save and reuse them later as search profiles.

Lastly, registering, configuring and managing OSF instances and datasets into Drupal has never been easier. The new OSF Configure module centralizes all the features and options required for these purposes, which are then managed by a new suite of tools (see next).

Automated Installation and Management Tools

Standard enterprise deployments that proceed from development to production require constant updates and versions, both in application code and content. Keeping track and managing these changes — let alone deploying them quickly and without error — requires separate management capabilities in their own right. The new OSF thus has a number of utilities and command-line tools to aid these requirements:

  • OSF Installer — this tool installs and configures all the pieces required by the OSF stack, then runs the OSF Tests Suites to make sure that all functionality is fully operational on the new server
  • OSF Tests Suites — composed of 746 tests and 4139 assertions, these tests may be run every time an OSF instance is deployed or code is changed. The tests measure all of the input parameters of each endpoint, combinations thereof, mime types, and expected errors returned by each endpoint
  • OSF Ontologies Management Tool — (OMT) is used to manage ontologies, list ontologies, create/import new ones, delete existing ones, or to generate underlying ontological structures
  • OSF Datasets Management Tool — (DMT) is used to manage datasets of a OSF instance, enabling the user to create, delete, update, import and export datasets directly from the command line
  • OSF Permissions Management Tool — (PMT) is used to manage, list, create or delete access permissions groups and users
  • OSF Data Validator Tool — (DVT) is used to perform a series of post-indexation data validation tests and return validation errors if any are found.

Tempered via Enterprise Development and Deployments

The methods and processes by which these advances have been made all occurred within the context of state-of-the-art enterprise IT management. Experience with supporting infrastructure tools (such as Jira, Confluence, Puppet, etc.) and agile development methods are part of the ongoing documentation of OSF (see next). This experience also bolsters Structured Dynamics’ ability to work with other third-party applications at the middleware layer or in support of enterprise deployments.

Comprehensive and Completed Updated Documentation

The Open Semantic Framework has evolved considerably since its conception now five years ago. In its early development, components and pieces were sometimes developed in isolation and then brought into the framework. This jagged development path led to a cacophony of names and terms to characterize portions of the OSF stack. This terminology confusion has made it more difficult than it needed to be to understand the vision of OSF, the layers of its architecture, or the interactions between its components and parts.

In making the substantial efforts to update documentation from OSF version 1.x to the current version 3.0, terminology was made consistent and code references were cleaned up to reflect the simpler OSF branding. This clean up has led to necessary updates across multiple Web sites maintained by Structured Dynamics with some relationship to OSF.

The Web site with the most changes required has been the OSF Wiki. In its prior incarnation, called TechWiki, there were nearly 400 technical articles on OSF. That site has now been completely rewritten and re-organized. Nearly two hundred new articles have been written in support of OSF v 3.0. Terminology related to the older cacophony (see correspondance table here) has (hopefully) been updated and corrected. Most architectural and technical diagrams have been updated. Additional documentation is being posted daily, catching up with the experience of the past twenty months.

Moving Beyond the Established Foundation

Open Semantic Framework

SD is pleased that enterprise sponsors want to continue beyond the Open Semantic Framework’s present solid foundations. While we are not at liberty to discuss specific client initiatives, a number of ongoing developments can be described broadly. First, in terms of the key engines that provide the core of OSF’s data management capabilities, initiatives are underway in the areas of visualization, business analytics and workflow orchestration and management. There are also efforts underway in more automated means for direct ingest of quality Web-based information, both based on linked data and from Web APIs. We are also pleased that efforts to further extend OSF’s tight integration with Drupal are also of interest, even while the integration efforts of the past months have not yet been fully exploited.

To Learn More

To learn more, make sure and check out the re-organized OSF wiki. See specifically the complete OSF overview, the list of all the OSF 3.0 features, and the list of all the new features to OSF 3.0. Also, for a complete soup-to-nuts view of what it takes to put up a new OSF installation, see the Users Guide. Lastly, for a broad overview of OSF, see its reference architecture and the overviews on its dedicated OSF Web site.

As a final note, Structured Dynamics would like to thank its corporate sponsors of the past five years for providing the development funds for OSF, and for agreeing with the open source purposes of the Open Semantic Framework.

Posted:May 21, 2013

Neighbourhoods of Winnipeg - NOWFirst and Largest Local Government Site to Exclusively Embrace Semantic Technologies

The City of Winnipeg, the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, just released its “NOW” portal celebrating its diverse and historical 236 neighborhoods. The NOW portal is one of the largest releases of open data by a local government to date, with some 57 varied datasets now available ranging from local neighborhood amenities such as pools and recreation centers, to detailed real estate and economic development information. Nearly one-half million individual Web pages comprise the site, driven exclusively by semantic technologies. Nearly 10 million RDF triples underly the site.

In announcing the site, Winnipeg Mayor Sam Katz said, “We want to attract new investment to the city and, at the same time, ensure that Winnipeg remains healthy and viable for existing businesses to thrive and grow.” He added, “The new web portal, Neighbourhoods of Winnipeg—or NOW—is one way that we are making it easy to do business within the City of Winnipeg.”

NOW provides a single point of access for information such as location of schools and libraries, Census and demographic information, historical data and mapping information. A new Economic Development feature included in the portal was developed in partnership with Economic Development Winnipeg Inc. (EDW) and Winnipeg REALTORS®.

Our company, Structured Dynamics, was the lead contractor for the effort. An intro to the technical details powering the Winnipeg site is provided in the complementary blog post by SD’s chief technologist, Fred Giasson. These intro announcements by SD will be later followed by more detailed discussions on relevant NOW portal topics in the coming weeks.

Background and Formal Release

But the NOW story is really one of municipal innovation and a demonstration of what a staff of city employees can accomplish when given the right tools and frameworks. SD’s real pleasure over the past two years of development and data conversion for this site has been our role as consultants and advisors as the City itself converted the data and worked the tools. The City of Winnipeg NOW (Neighbourhoods of Winnipeg) site is testament to the ability of semantic technologies to be learned and effectively used and deployed by subject matter professionals from any venue.

In announcing the site on May 13, Mayor Sam Katz also released a short four-minute introductory video about the site:

What we find most exciting about this site is how our open source Open Semantic Framework can be adopted to cutting-edge municipal open data and community-oriented portals. Without any semantic technology background at the start of the project, the City has demonstrated its ability to manage, master and then tailor the OSF framework to its specific purposes.

Key Emphases

As its name implies, the entire thrust of the Winnipeg portal is on its varied and historical neighborhoods. The NOW portal itself is divided into seven major site sections with 2,245 static pages and a further 425,000 record-oriented pages. The number of dynamic pages that may be generated from the site given various filtering or slicing-and-dicing choices is essentially infinite.


The fulcrum around which all data is organized on the NOW portal are the 236 neighborhoods within the City of Winnipeg, organized into 14 community areas, 15 political wards, and 23 neighborhood clusters. These neighborhood references link to thousands of City of Winnipeg and external sites, as well as have many descriptive pages of their own.

Some 57 different datasets contribute the information to the site, some authored specifically for the NOW portal with others migrated from legacy City databases. Coverage ranges from parks, schools, recreational and sports facilities, and zoning, to libraries, bus routes, police stations, day care facilities, community gardens and more. More than 1,400 attributes characterize this data, all of which may be used for filtering or slicing the data.

Property and Economic Development

A key aspect of the site is its real estate, assessment and zoning information. Every address and parcel in the city — a count nearing 190,000 in the current portal — may be looked up and related to its local and neighborhood amenities. Up to three areas of the City may be mapped and compared to one another, felt to be a useful tool for screening economic development potentials.

Census Data

All of the neighborhood and neighborhood clusters may be investigated and compared for Census data in two time periods (2001 and 2006). Types of Census informaton includes population, education, labor and work, transportation, education, languages, income, minorities and immigration, religion, marital status, and other family and household measures.

Any and all neighborhoods may be compared to one another on any or all of these measures, with results available in chart, table or export form.

Images and History

Images and history pages are provided for each Winnipeg neighborhood.


Throughout, there are rich mapping options that can be sliced and displayed on any of these dimensions of locality or type of information or attribute.

More to Come!

The basic dataset authoring framework will enable City staff (and, perhaps, external parties or citizens) to add additional datasets to the portal over time.

Key Functionality and Statistics

The NOW site is rich in functionality and display and visualization options. Some of this functionality includes the:

NOW Ontology Graph

NOW Graph Structure

NOW is entirely an ontology-driven site, with both domain and administrative ontologies guiding all aspects of search, retrieval and organization. There are 12 domain ontologies govering the site, two of which are specific to NOW (the NOW ontology and a Canadian Census ontology). Ten external ontologies (such as FOAF, GeoNames, etc) are also used.

The NOW ontology, shown to the left, has more than 2500 subject concepts within it covering all aspects of municipal governance and specific Winnipeg factors.

Relation Browser

All of the 2500 linked concepts in the NOW ontology graph can be interactively explored and navigated via the relation browser. The central “bubble” also presents related, linked information such as images, Census data, descriptive material and the like. As adjacent “bubbles” are clicked, the user can navigate or “swim through” the NOW graph.

NOW Relation Browser

NOW Web Maps

Web Map

Nearly all of the information on the NOW site — or about 420,000 records — contains geolocational information of one form or another. There are about 200,000 points of interest records, another 200,000 area or polygon records, and about 7,000 paths and routes such as bus routes in the system.

All 190,000 property addresses in Winnipeg may be looked up and mapped.

Virtually all of the 57 datasets in the system may be filtered by category or type or attribute. This information can be filtered or searched using about 1400 different facets, singly or in combination with one another.

Various map perspectives are provided from facilities (schools, parks, etc.) to economic development and history, transportation routes and bus stops, and property, real estate and zoning records.


Depending on the type of object at hand, one of more than 50 templates may be invoked to govern the display of its record information. These templates are selected contextually from the ontology and present different layouts of map, image, record attribute or other information, all keyed by the governing type.

Each template is thus geared to present relevant information for the type of object at hand, in a layout specific to that object.

Objects lacking their own specific templates default to the display type of their parent or grandparent objects such that no object type lacks a display format.

Multiple templates are displayed on search pages, depending upon the diversity of object types returned by the given search.

Example of a NOW Record Template

Example of a NOW Census Chart

Graph Statistics

The NOW site provides a rich set of Census statistics by neighborhood or community area for comparison purposes. The nearly half million data points may be compared between neighborhoods (make sure and pick more than one) in graph form (shown) or in tabular form (not shown).

Census information spans from demographics and income to health, schooling and other measures of community well-being.

Like all other displays, the selected results can also be exported as open data (see below).

Image Gallery

The NOW portal presently has about 2700 images on site organized by object type, neighborhood, and historical. These images are contextually available in multiple locations throughout the site.

The History topic section also matches these images to historical neighborhood narratives.

Example of a NOW Image Gallery

Example conStruct Tool: structOntology

conStruct Tools

A series of twenty or so back office tools are available to City of Winnipeg staff to grow, manage and otherwise maintain the portal. Some of these tools are exposed in read-only form to the general public (see Geeky Tools next).

The example at left is the structOntology tool for managing the various ontologies on the site.

Geeky Tools

As a means to show what happens behind the scenes, the Geeky Tools section presents a number of the back office tools in read-only form. These are also good ways to see the semantic technologies in action.

The Geeky Tools section provides access to Search, Browse, Ontology, and Export (see next) tools.

NOW's Geeky Tools

The NOW Export Function

Open Data Exports

On virtually any display or after any filter selection, there is an “export” button that allows the active data to be exported in a variety of formats. Under Geeky Tools it is also possible to export whole datasets or slices of them. Some of the key formats include:

Some of these are serializations that are not standard ones for RDF, but follow a notation that retains the unique RDF aspects.

Some Early Lessons

Though the technical aspects of the NOW site have been ready for quite some time, with limited staff and budget it took City staff some time to convert all of its starting datasets and to learn how to develop and manage the site on its own. As a result, some of the design decisions made a couple of years back now appear a bit dated.

For example, the host content management system is Drupal 6, though Drupal 8 is getting close to its own release. Similarly, some of the display widgets are based on Flash, which Adobe announced last year it will continue to maintain, but will no longer develop. In the two years since design decisions were originally made, the importance of mobile apps and smartphones and tablets has also grown tremendously in importance.

These kinds of upgrades are a constant in the technology world, and apply to NOW as well. Fortunately, the underlying basis of the entire portal in its data and stack were architected to enable eventual upgrades.

Another key aspect of the site will be the degree to which external parties contribute additional data. It would be nice, for example, to see the site incorporate events announcements and non-City information on commercial and non-profit services and facilities.


Structured Dynamics is proud about the suitability of our OSF technology stack and is impressed with all the data that is being exposed. Our informal surveys suggest this is the largest open data portal by a major city worldwide to be released to date. It is certainly the first to be powered exclusively by semantic technologies.

Yet, despite those impressive claims, we submit that the real achievement of this project is something different. The fact that this entire portal is fully maintained and operated by the City’s own internal IT staff is a game changer. The IT staff of the City of Winnipeg had no prior internal semantic Web knowledge, nor any knowledge in RDF, OWL or any other underlying technologies used by the portal. What they had is a vision of their project and what they wanted. They placed significant faith and made a commitment to master the OSF technology stack, and the underlying semantic Web concepts and principles to make their vision a reality. Much of SD’s 430+ documents on the OSF TechWiki are a result of this collaborative technology transfer between us and the City.

We are truly grateful that the City of Winnipeg has taken open source and open data quite seriously. In our partnership wth them they have been extremely supportive of what we have done to progress the technology, release it as open source, and then to document our lessons and experiences for other parties to utilize as documented on the TechWiki. The City of Winnipeg truly shows enlightened government at its best. Thank you, especially to our project managers, Kelly Goldstrand and Don Conolly.

Structured Dynamics has long stated its philosophy as, “We are successful when we are no longer needed. We’re extremely pleased and proud that the NOW portal and the City of Winnipeg show this objective is within realistic reach.

Posted:May 15, 2013

So Many QuestionsThinking About the Interstices of the Journey

It actually is a dimmer memory than I would like: the decision to begin a blog eight years ago, nearly to the day ([1]). Since then, for every month and more often many more times per month, I have posted the results of my investigations or ramblings, mostly like clockwork. But, in a creeping realization, I see that I have not posted any new thoughts on this venue for more than two months! Until that hiatus, I had been biologically consistent.

Maybe, as some say, and I don’t disagree, the high-water mark of the blog has passed. Certainly blog activity has dropped dramatically. The emergence of ‘snippet communications’ now appears dominant based on messages and bandwidth. I don’t loathe it, nor fear it, but I find a world dominated by 140 characters and instant babbling mostly a bore.

From a data mining perspective — similar to peristalsis or the wave in a sports stadium — there is worth in the “crowd” coherence/incoherence and spontaneity. We can see the waves, but most are transient. I actually think that broad scrutiny helps promote separating the wheat from chaff. We can expose free radicals to the sanitizing effect of sunlight. Yet these are waves, only very rarely trends, and most generally not truths. That truth stuff is some really slippery stuff.

But, that is really not what is happening for me. (Though I really live to chaw on truth.) Mostly, I just had nothing interesting to say, so there was no reason to blog about it. And, now, as I look at why I broke my disciplined approach to blogging and why it has gone on hiatus, I still am a bit left scratching my head as to why my pontifications stalled.

Two obvious reasons are that our business is doing gangbusters, and it is hard to sneak away from company good-fortune. Another is that my family and children have been joyously demanding.

Yet all of that deflects from the more relevant explanation. The real reason, I think, that I have not been writing more recently actually relates to the circumstance of semantic techologies. Yes, progress is being made, some instances are notable, but the general “semantic web” or “linked data” enterprise is stalled. The narrative for these things — let alone their expression and relevance — needs to change substantially.

I feel we are in the midst of this intense interstice, but the framing perspective for the next discussions have yet to emerge.

The strange thing about that statement is not the basis in semantic technologies, which are now understood and powerful, but the incorporation of these advantages into enterprise practices and environments. In this sense, semantic technologies are now growing up. Their logic and role is clear and explainable, but how they fit into corporate practice with acceptable maintenance costs is still being discovered.

Posted:February 25, 2013

A popular post on this blog has been the Seven Pillars of the Open Semantic Enterprise. That article described the building blocks – or foundations – to a semantic enterprise, at least from my own perspective. But it has always felt that the reason why anyone should even be interested in this semantic enterprise business deserved its own discussion.

This current article riffs off of that earlier blog to provide the seven rationales or arguments for why pursuing a semantic enterprise makes sense, especially in contrast to conventional or traditional approaches. This riff extends to even re-presenting the seven-spoke wheel from that original article:

Each of these bubbles deserves some discussion.

Search & Discover

The first advantage with semantic technologies is that all kinds of information are unified. No matter what information you consider, any content type may become a ‘first-class citizen’. For really the first time, all kinds of information ranging from traditional databases and spreadsheets (“structured”), to markup, Web pages, XML and data messages (“semi-structured”), and then on to documents and text (“unstructured”) or multimedia (via metadata) can be put on a level playing field [1].

These data, now all treated on an equal footing, can be searched and retrieved by a variety of techniques. These range from SQL, standard text search, or SPARQL, depending on content type. This unique combination enables all of the aspects of findability – find, discover, navigate – to be fulfilled. Because of the diversity of search options available, search results can be varied and “dialed in” depending upon circumstance and needs.

Because all content is represented either as a type of thing (“node” or noun) or the relationships between those things (“predicate”, “property”, “attribute” or characteristic or verb), any and all of those classifiers may be used for faceting or grouping. Further, the relationships put all things in context, useful to ensure results are relevant and disambiguated.

In all cases, these ways of describing things and their relationships to one another are based on the “idea of the thing” and are not bound or restricted to keywords. This means that all the various ways that things can be described – alternative terms, synonyms, acronyms or jargon – including in multiple languages, can be used to find or match these ideas or concepts.

When combined with the ability to infer relationships between things – even if not explicitly asserted – search and discovery for semantic technologies literally blows away any and all alternative approaches to search.

Do More

The classic information architecture (IA) diagram relates users to content and context. It is at the nexus of these ideas that actions and actionable information occurs:

Semantic technologies are superior in terms of the ability to capture all forms of content (structured, semi-structured and unstructured) as first-class citizens and to represent it through knowledge graphs (ontologies). Further, the ability to describe this content with multiple labels, languages and descriptors means the “idea of things” is much better captured than via keywords alone.

The explicit accounting of relationships between things with semantic technologies means the ability to capture better context, important for navigation and the reduction of ambiguity. The richness of relationships also means that the way things relate to one another can also be used for grouping, classifying, filtering or finding things.

Users can be better characterized and related to this content and its contexts because of this ability to match metadata to things and relationships. This leads to richer user experiences and the separation of content from presentation, giving the content more power.

In all cases, because of these basic information architecture advantages, the actions that can be taken upon content are far superior in comparison to any alternatives. Unique actions brought by semantic technologies include analysis, graph traversals and answering systems.

But, the ability to do more extends beyond content and context.

The ability of semantic technologies – specifically the RDF data model – to represent all content forms and any possible schema means that any existing content can be represented through a single representation. This makes RDF a form of “universal solvent” in which any content form can be distilled. This has huge implications and advantages.

One advantage is in providing data interoperability. The RDF data model enables any content form or schema to be represented, and the fact that the meanings of things can be mapped to agreed concepts and relationships also means that disparate information sources can be adequately related to one another. The fact that all data has a unique URI identifier means that any information accessible via HTTP can be included. This model with its marriage to ontology graphs leads to an excellent framework for interoperating data.

This same robustness for mapping different data leads to a second advantage, namely, semantic annotation. Concepts may be matched through so-called ontology-based information extraction (OBIE) and entities or things may be matched with named entity recognition (NER). The tags that result from these recognitions can then be placed back into documents via what is known as semantic injection. The result of all of these activities is that the very same content can now be equivalently understood by machines or humans.

The graph orientation of the system and its logic next means that the information structure is computable with unique analysis capabilities. The relationships between things can be understood and inferred, and the graph structures themselves may lead to unique traversal mechanisms and network analysis such as influence, clusters, neighborhoods, connectedness and so forth. No other information structure provides these unique advantages.

The graph structure also means that finding and relating stuff only need access a single index, after which relations can be traced and computed. Conventional relational database systems require joins and multiple index lookups to even approximate a portion of this ability, which can quickly run out of steam with complex requests or queries. (Also, recall that RDBMs can not accommodate the content or schema flexibilities that semantic technologies can, either.)

These advantages – combined with some of the other advantages discussed in next sections – also enable semantic publishing using these technologies. Semantic publishing offers new ways to let data and its characteristics drive how information gets presented.

The Knowledge Graph

Besides the RDF data model, the other pivotal aspect of semantic technologies is the knowledge graph, the ontology that captures the logical schema of the problem domain at hand. The knowledge graph is based on logic and is built from simple statements, or assertions.

The so-called “triples” that are these basic assertion statements in the semantic model are like a sentence of subject – predicate – object. The object of one statement can be the subject of another. In this manner, these “triple” barbells get connected together, growing in a graph-like structure as more statements are added. These basic building blocks are easy to understand and easy to correct if problems are found. Because each node (a subject or object) is the “idea of a thing” and not limited by individual labels or language, each of these things can be described in multiple ways with multiple terms or synonyms. Different people using different language to describe the same thing can thus communicate. Further, how these things relate to one another can be as diverse as how things relate to one another in the real world. The knowledge graph is phenomenally capable of describing the relevant world at hand.

All of these components themselves are based on basic first-order logic, which means these graph structures can be reasoned over, including being able to infer what is not strictly asserted, and to test that the assertions that are made make logical sense. This logical sense is what we term coherence. Because of this logical structure, and because of its graph nature, semantic technologies offer unique ways to find things and to analyze them. Increasingly over time we will see graph analysis become a more important aspect of how we analyze and solve problems.

Business in Control

How all of this affects the business is fundamental. Because the characterization of data and the structure of how it interacts together – and because the basic nature of these structures is relatively easy to understand – semantic technologies bring a tectonic shift to the enterprise. Control of how it works now shifts to those who need to consume and manage that information; that is, knowledge workers, managers, and subject-matter experts.

This content is separated from the presentation and the applications that use it. Since so much information is contained in the structure and relationships of the content, these patterns can inform how to present and use the information. For example, the fact that some information contains geo-locational attributes means that it can be mapped; or, we can know that cameras are a kind of device or product. This embedded knowledge can be used to inform how generic applications need to respond and display the info.

Thus, we see that the nexus of control around knowledge management can now shift to those who need and consume that information. The role of information technology moves to the background to provide the infrastructures and tools that can be driven from these information structures. We term these types of applications, “ontology-driven applications”, or ODapps.

We are only now at the very beginnings of this transition. ODapp tools are still few and not mature, and few organizations have even made the cultural transition to shift this locus of control. But, embracing semantic technologies and its innate power to bring information management directly into the hands of those who need it will definitely disrupt the enterprise.

An Adaptive and Robust Fit

Because these structures and the data model behind them are a natural fit with the nature of information, semantic technologies prove to be both adaptive and robust. The data model is easily extended and modified without affecting the schemas already in place, a circumstance of having an open world logic. An abiding constant of relational technology – the basis for enterprise IT systems over the past few decades – has been its rigidity and difficulty in changing its structure or organization. Such a framework is perhaps the best for transactional systems, but is a poor choice for knowledge systems where the amount of content and its relationships are constantly changing.

A huge lever arising from these underlying semantic technologies is the ability to integrate across the different characteristics of information – its syntax, its structure, and its meaning. Units of measure, or different languages, or different ways to describe the same thing can all be boiled down to a common representation.

As the attention shifts to how we describe our domains and its concepts and instances, we can segregate off the questions of how we present and interact with that information. That means our human-computer interfaces can become more effective. It means that HCI itself can focus more on the channel or device. We are seeing it now with widgets and mobile apps, but our information will increasingly be presented through known interactions no matter what device we use. Semantic technologies are a natural and superior means for this adaptivity.

Much Reduced Costs

All of these benefits in productivity, responsiveness, and adaptivity translate into much reduced costs. These reductions come both in lower set-up and deployment costs and in lower maintenance and scope costs. Experience is that these functions can be undertaken on average at lower costs one or two orders of magnitude less with semantic technologies than with traditional approaches.

These reductions come about because we can leverage our existing information stores and schema into a single, “canonical” representation against which we can tool and present. The fact that new sources can be integrated into the system without re-architecting what already exists is another huge win, and a matter that almost always overruns budgets with conventional approaches.

An area little documented is the high cost of errors. It is ubiquitous in our current information systems. But, it is a hidden and huge cost. Because semantic technologies can help in putting information into context, can help resolve ambiguities, and can be tested for integrity and coherence, the chance of identifying errors before they are introduced into the system is great. These benefits are in addition to the measurable deployment and maintenance advantages.

A Domain Rationale

Every domain has its own rationale and arguments for why semantic technologies make sense. In this case, we use a biomedical example. It is particularly suitable because health care and biomedical knowledge, as indeed for all of biology, is a rich domain for semantics.

As the very aspects of life get scrutinized and dissected with our modern technologies and approaches, we are seeing a veritable explosion in the both the amount and nature of biomedical information. Many ideas and concepts not known five to ten or twenty years ago now define this dynamic domain. New and technical terminology keeps arising, but also because the relations are to life and health, these need to be expressed in human terms and at varying levels of sophistication.

This is a perfect example of the relevance of semantic technologies. It is no wonder that more than 250 ontologies now characterize this space, with growth in semantic solutions rapidly occurring because leading institutions and funding agencies are aggressively exploiting and promoting semantic technologies.

Slide Re-cap

For a slide presentation of some of these points, you may see:


Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on February 25, 2013 at 3:07 am in Semantic Enterprise | Comments (1)
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Posted:February 18, 2013

The Semantic Enterprise Part 6 in the Enterprise-scale Semantic Systems Series

The fulcrum by which semantic technologies work within the enterprise is the dataset. A dataset refers to a named grouping of records, best designed as similar in record types and intended access rights (though technically a dataset is any named grouping of records).

Datasets play a central role in the organization of information in Structured Dynamics‘ (SD) open semantic framework (OSF). Datasets are one of the three major access dimensions to the OSF (the other two being users/groups and tools/endpoints). In combination, these three dimensions — datasets, users/groups and tools/endpoints — can also result in a powerful set of profiles that govern overall access to content.

Specific security aspects of the semantic enterprise stack are discussed in another part of this Enterprise-scale Semantic Systems (ESSS) series, but the interplay of those aspects with datasets is fundamental. As such, how datasets are bounded and organized (and, then, named) is a critical management consideration for enterprises that adopt a semantic technology stack based on an architecture like OSF. This role of datasets, how to organize them, how to manage them, and also some best practices for how to use them, are the focus of this part in our series.

Access Dimensions to the OSF

To briefly recall the architectural discussion in this series, SD’s semantic technology stack involves a Web services layer (structWSF) used to access specific functional endpoints, all via HTTP queries [1]. Some of these endpoints access complete applications in such areas as tagging, imports/exports, search and the like. Other endpoints individually provide (or not) access to CRUD (createread- updatedelete) rights to interact with either individual records, full datasets, or the ontologies that are the “schema” overlying this information. The net result, at present, is more than 20 individual Web service endpoints to query and interact with the system:

Web Service Create Read Update Delete
Auth Registrar: Access X X    
Auth Registrar: WS X X    
Auth: Lister   X    
Auth: Validator   X    
Ontology: Create X      
Ontology: Read   X    
Ontology: Update     X  
Ontology: Delete       X
Dataset: Create X      
Dataset: Read   X    
Dataset: Update     X  
Dataset: Delete       X
CRUD: Create X      
CRUD: Read   X    
CRUD: Update     X  
CRUD: Delete       X
Search   X    
SPARQL   X    
Tracker: Create X      

This structWSF Web services layer has a three-dimensional design that is used to govern access:

  1. Users (or Groups or Roles)
  2. Tools, and
  3. Datasets.

A “user” may extend from an individual to an entire class or group of users, say, unregistered visitors to a given portal. Tools refer to each of the structWSF endpoints, each with its own URI.

What this means is that a given user may be granted access or not — and various rights or not from reading to the creation or deletion of information — in relation to specific datasets. Stated another way, it is in the nexus of user type and dataset that access control is established for the semantic system.

In an enterprise context, a given individual (“user”) may have different access rights depending on circumstance. A worker in a department may be able to see and do different things for departmental information than for enterprise information. A manager may be able to view budget information that is not readable by support personnel. A visitor to a different Web site or portal may see different information than visitors to other Web sites. Supervisors might be able to see and modify salary data for certain employees that is not viewable by others.

The user role or persona thus becomes the access identifier to the system. What information and what tools they might use in relation to that information is defined in relation to the datasets for which they have access.

Some Access Scenarios

So, let’s say, a given enterprise has two major information stores, #1 and #2, and also has some domain (or departmental or other such boundary) information for X, Y and Z, some of which is local (perhaps for the local branch) and the rest global (for that line of business). Further, let’s also suppose that those same departments also have sensitive, internal information related to either internal matters (such as salaries) or support matters (such as qualified vendors). This basic scenario is laid out in A of the diagram below:

Now, depending, different individuals (most often assigned to different access groups, but that is not required) need to have different access to this information. In one case, a general user with access to mostly public stuff exists for domain B; another for domain C. Then still, a supervisor or someone internally may have responsibilities in the Y domain; that could be case D.

Any of the same variations above could result in a different use case; AD above is merely illustrative.

Profiles to Overcome the Combinatorial Problem

It is fairly easy to see that the combination of datasets x tools x roles can lead to many access permutations. With, say, the current 20 some-odd tools in the OSF with five different roles and just ten different datasets, we already have about 1,000 permutations. As portals and dataset numbers grow, this combinatorial explosion gets even worse. Of course, not all combinations of datasets, tools and roles make sense. In fact, only a relatively few number of patterns likely covers 95% or more of all likely access options.

Because access rights are highly patterned, these theoretical combinations can in fact be boiled down to a small number of practical templates — called profiles — to which a newly registered dataset can be assigned. (Of course, the enterprise could also tweak any of the standard profiles to meet any of the combinatorial options for a specific, unusual individual, such as for a tax auditor.)  Experience, in fact, shows the number of actual profiles to be surprisingly small.

For instance, consider these possible profile patterns:

  • Profile: Public (standard) — this profile is for a dataset intended for broad public access
  • Profile: Registered — this profile is for datasets that are limited to registered users of a portal (possibly as a way to prevent spam or to encourage membership or participation)
  • Profile: Curated — this profile is where a specific group or groups (which themselves can be flexibly determined and assigned) has curation rights for the dataset, or
  • Profile: Internal — this profile is for internal (private) datasets where only a specific group or groups may access or modify. In some instances, an internal dataset might be the profile type while the dataset is under development, with the profile shifting to a broader access category once completed.

Profiles may, of course, be applied to any permutation.

This profile concept can now be expanded to incorporate user type. Four categories of users can illustrate this dimension:

  • O = Owner (the original registrar of the dataset; often possibly the “owner” or “admin” of the portal, but not necessarily so)
  • G = Group member (a registered user who is a member of a specific group)
  • R = Registered user (an authorized portal user with a Drupal login and password)
  • P = Public (anonymous user)

Further, of course, with a multitude of groups, there are potentially many more than four categories (“roles”) of users as well.

A Sample Profile Matrix

To illustrate how we can collapse this combinatorial space into something more manageable, let’s look at what one of the profile cases noted above — that is the Public profile — can now be expressed as a pattern or template. In this example, the Public profile means that owners and some groups may curate the data, but everyone can see and access the data. Also note that export is a special case, which could warrant a sub-profile.

We also need to relate this Public profile to a specific dataset. For this dataset, we can characterize our “possible” assignments as described above as to whether a specific user category (O, G, R and P as noted above) has available a given function (open dot), gets permission rights to that function by virtue of the assigned profile (solid dot), or whether that function may also be limited to a specific group or groups (half-filled dot) or not.

Thus, we can now see this example profile matrix for the Public profile for an example dataset with respect to the available structWSF Web services:

Note, of course, that these options and categories and assignments are purely arbitrary for our illustrative discussion. Actual needs and circumstances may vary wildly from this example.

Matrices such as this seem complex, but that is why profiles can collapse and simplify the potential assignments into a manageable number of discrete options. If the pre-packaged profiles need to be tweaked or adjusted for a particular circumstance, provisions through the CMS enables all assignments to be accessed in individual detail. Via this design, knowledge and collaboration networks can be deployed that support an unlimited number of configurations and options, all in a scalable, Web-accessible manner. The data that is accessed is automatically expressed as linked data. This same framework can be layered over in situ existing data assets to provide data federation and interoperable functionality, all responsive to standard enterprise concerns regarding data access, rights and permissions.

Best Practices

Datasets are clearly one of the fundamental dimensions for organizing content within this OSF semantic enterprise design. Some of the best practices in bounding these structures:

  • Domain – what is the applicable scope or business purpose of this information? It is best to think of this question with regard to access, which is, after all, the most pragmatic way to think of it
  • Source – does the data vary by publisher or source location? For example, provenance or download location or format may be an important distinguishing factor in release or access, and may have copyright or royalty implications
  • When created – does the data have periodic update or creation times? For example, it may be important to distinguish between preliminary data and final data or to segregate data because of workflow or processing considerations
  • Access rights – are there any differences in how users may see or act upon the data? For example, privileged budget information may be put in a different dataset from public financial information
  • Type – does the data vary by class or kind? For example, records about schools might be desirable to keep different from records about churches, though at a different level both may be considered buildings, or
  • Attributes – are there differences in fields or attributes that describe the data? For example, a portion of records may have complete attribute descriptions, while the majority only contain a few descriptive fields.

Any of these differences may warrant creating a separate dataset. There are no limits to the number of datasets that may be managed by a given OSF instance.

Once such boundaries get set, then thinking about common attributes or metadata should be applied. Still further, datasets and their records (as all decision or information artifacts in an enterprise) go through natural work stages or progressions. Even the lowliest written document needs to be drafted, reviewed, characterized, approved, and then possibly revised. Whatever such workflow steps may be, including versioning, may warrant consideration as belonging to a different dataset.

Lastly, whatever the operational mode devised, finding naming conventions to reflect these variations is essential to manage the dataset files. Which goes to show: datasets are meaningful information artifacts in and of themselves.

NOTE: This is part of an ongoing series on enterprise-scale semantic systems (ESSS), which has its own category on this blog. Simply click on that category link to see other articles in this series.

[1] Or programmatically via the structWSF API.