Citizen Dan is a free, open source system available to any community and its citizens to measure and track indicators of local well being. It can be branded and themed for local needs. It is under active development by Structured Dynamics with support from a number of innovative cities.
Citizen Dan is an exemplar instance of Structured Dynamics’ open semantic framework (OSF), a generalized framework for deploying semantic platforms for any domain. By changing its guiding ontologies and source content and data, what appears for Citizen Dan can be adopted for virtually any subject area.
As configured, the Citizen Dan OSF instance is a:
Citizen Dan’s information sources may include Census data, the Web, real-time feeds, government datasets, municipal government information systems, or crowdsourced data. Information can range from standard structured data to local narratives, including from minutes and reports, contributed stories, blogs or news outlets. The ‘raw’ input data can come in essentially any format, which is then converted to a standard form with consistent semantics.
Text and narratives and the concepts and entities they describe are integrally linked into the system via information extraction and tagging. All ingested information, whether structured or text sources, with their semantics, can be exported in multiple formats. A standard organizing schema, also open source and extensible or modifiable by all users, is provided via the optional MUNI ontology (with vocabulary details in development here), being developed expressly for Citizen Dan and its community indicator system purposes.
All of the community information contained within a Citizen Dan instance is available as linked data.
Here are the main components or widgets to this Citizen Dan demo:
A number of other tools are available to admins in the actual appliance, but are not exposed in the demo:
In addition, it is not possible in the demo to save persistent dashboard views or submit stories or documents for tagging, nor to register as a user or view the admin portions of the Drupal instance.
The sample data and content in the demo is for the Iowa City (IA) metropolitan statistical area. This area embraces two counties (Johnson and Washington) and the census tracts and townships that comprise them, and about two dozen cities. Two of the notable cities are Iowa City itself, home of the University of Iowa, and Coralville, where Structured Dynamics, the developer of Citizen Dan and the open semantic framework (OSF), is headquartered.
The text content on this site is drawn from Wikipedia articles dealing with this area. About 30 stories are included.
The data content on the site is drawn from US Census Bureau data. Shape files for the various geographic areas were obtained from here, and the actual datasets by geographic area can be obtained from here.
Citizen Dan is an exemplar instance of Structured Dynamics’ open semantic framework (OSF), a generalized framework for deploying semantic platforms for specific domains.
OSF is a combination of a layered architecture and modular software. Most of the individual open source software products developed by Structured Dynamics and available on the OpenStructs site are components within the open semantic framework. These include:
The software that makes up the Citizen Dan appliance is one of the four legs that provide a stable, open source solution. These four legs are software, structure, methods and documentation. When all four are provided, we can term this a total open solution.
For Citizen Dan, the complements to this software are:
In its entirety, the total open solution amounts to a form of capacity building for the enterprise.
Inherent in the design and architecture of Citizen Dan is the potential for each instance (single installation) to act as a node in a distributed network of nodes across the Web. Via the structWSF Web service endpoints and appropriate dataset permissions, it is possible for any city in the Citizen Dan network to share (or not) any or all of its data with other cities.
This collaboration aspect has been “baked into the cake” from Day One. The system also supports differential access, rights and roles by dataset and Web service. Thus, city staffs across multiple communities could share data differently than what is provided to the general public.
Since all data management aspects of each Citizen Dan instance is also oriented around datasets, expansion to a network mode is quite straightforward.
The Citizen Dan appliance is based on the Drupal content management system, which means any community can easily theme or add to the functionality of the system with any of the available 6500 open source modules that extend the basic Drupal functionality.
All other components, including the multiple third-party ones, are also open source.
To install Citizen Dan for your own use, you need to:
(Note: there will also be some more updates in August, including the MUNI release.)
Finally, please contact us if you’d like to learn more about the project, investigate funding or sponsorship opportunities, or contribute to development. We’d welcome your involvement!
A few weeks back I completed a three-part introductory series to what Structured Dynamics calls a ‘total open solution‘. A total open solution as we defined it is comprised of software, structure, methods and documentation. When provided in toto, these components provide all of the necessary parts for an organization to adopt new open source solutions on its own (or with the choice of its own consultants and contractors). A total open solution fulfills SD’s mantra that, “We’re successful when we’re not needed.”
Two of the four legs to this total open solution are provided by documentation and methods. These two parts can be seen as a knowledge base that instructs users on how to select, install, maintain and manage the solution at hand.
Today, SD is releasing publicly for the first time two complementary knowledge bases for these purposes: TechWiki, which is the technical and software documentation complement, in this case based around SD’s Open Semantic Framework and its associated open source software projects; and DocWiki, the process methodology and project management complement that extends this basis, in this case based around the Citizen Dan local community open data appliance.
All of the software supporting these initiatives is open source. And, all of the content in the knowledge bases is freely available under a Creative Commons 3.0 license with attribution.
In setting out the design of these knowledge bases, our mindset was to enable single-point authoring of document content, while promoting easy collaboration and rollback of versions. Thus, the design objectives became:
Assuming these objectives could be met, we then had three other objectives on our wish list:
Our initial investigations looked at conventional content and document management systems, matched with version control systems or SVNs. Somewhat surprisingly, though, we found the Mediawiki platform to fulfill all of our objectives. Mediawiki, as detailed below, has evolved to become a very mature and capable documentation platform.
While most of us know Mediawiki as a kind of organic authoring and content platform — as it is used on Wikipedia and many other leading wikis — we also found it perfect for our specific knowledge base purposes. To our knowledge, no one has yet set up and deployed Mediawiki in the specific pre-packaged knowledge base manner as described herein.
TechWiki is a Mediawiki instance designed to support the collaborative creation of technical knowledge bases. The TechWiki design is specifically geared to produce high-quality, comprehensive technical documentation associated with the OpenStructs open source software. This knowledge base is meant to be the go-to source for any and all documentation for the codes, and includes information regarding:
As of today, TechWiki contains 187 articles under 56 categories, with a further 293 images. The knowledge base is growing daily.
DocWiki is a sibling Mediawiki instance that contains all TechWiki material, but has a broader purpose. Its role is to be a complete knowledge base for a given installation of an Open Semantic Framework (in the current case, Citizen Dan). As such, it needs to include much of the technical information in the TechWiki, but also extends that in the following areas:
The methodology portions of the DocWiki are drawn from the broader MIKE2.0 (Method for Integrated Knowledge Environments) approach. I have previously written about this open source methodology championed by Bearing Point and Deloitte.
As of today, DocWiki contains 357 articles and 394 structured tasks in 70 activity areas under 77 categories. Another 115 images support this content. This knowledge base, too, is growing daily.
Both of these knowledge bases are open source and may be exported and installed locally. Then, users may revise and modify and extend that pre-packaged information in any way they see fit.
The basic design of these systems is geared to collaboration and embeds what we think are really responsive work flows. These extend from supporting initial idea noodling to full-blown public documentation. The inherent design of the system also supports single-source publishing and book or PDF creation from the material that is there. Here is the basic overview of the design:
Mediawiki provides the standard authoring and collaboration environment. There are a choice of editing methods. As content is created, it is organized in a standard way and stored in the knowledge base. The Mediawiki API supports the export of information in either XHTML or XML, which in turn allows the information to be used in external apps (including other Mediawiki instances) or for various single-source publication purposes. The Collection extension is one means by which PDFs or even entire books (that is, multi-page documents with potentially chapters, etc.) may be created. Use of a well-designed CSS ensures that outputs can be readily styled and themed for different purposes or audiences.
As wikis designed from the get-go to be reusable, and then downloaded and installed locally, it is important that we maintain quality and consistency across content. (After download, users are free to do with it as they wish, but it is important the initial database be clean and coherent.) The overall interaction with the content thus occurs via one of three levels: 1) simple reading, which is publicly available without limitation to any visitor, including source inspection and export; 2) editing and authoring, which is limited to approved contributors; and 3) draft authoring and noodling, which is limited to the group in #2 but for which the in-progress content is not publicly viewable. Built-in access rights in the system enable these distinctions.
Besides meeting all of the objectives noted at the opening of this post, these wikis (knowledge bases) also have these specific features:
Many of these features come from the standard extensions in the TechWiki/DocWiki packages.
The net benefits from this design are easily shared and modified knowledge bases that users and organizations may either contribute to for the broader benefit of the OpenStructs community, or download and install with simple modifications for local use and extension. There is actually no new software in this approach, just proper attention to packaging, design, standardization and workflow.
Via the sharing of extensions, categories and CSS, it is quite easy to have multiple instances or authoring environments in this design. For Structured Dynamics, that begins with our own internal wiki. Many notes are taken and collected there, some of a proprietary nature and the majority not intended or suitable for seeing public release.
Content that has developed to the point of release, however, can be simply tagged using conventions in the workflow. Then, with a single Export command, the relevant content is then sent to an XML file. (This document can itself be edited, such as for example changing all ‘TechWiki’ references to something like ‘My Content Site’; see further here.)
Depending on the nature of the content, this exported content may then be imported with a single Import command to either the TechWiki or DocWiki sites. (Note: Import does require admin rights.) A simple migration may also occur from the TechWiki to the DocWiki. Also, of course, initial authoring may begin at any of the sites, with collaborators an explicit feature of the TechWiki or DocWiki versions.
Any DocWiki can also be specifically configured for different domains and instance types. In terms of our current example, we are using Citizen Dan, but that could be any such Open Semantic Framework instance type:
Under this design, then, the workflow suggests that technical content authoring and revision take place within the TechWiki, process and methodology revision in the DocWiki. Moreover, most DocWikis are likely to be installed locally, such that once installed, their own content would likely morph into local methods and steps.
So long as page titles are kept the same, newer information can be updated on any target wiki at any time. Prior versions are kept in the version history and can be reinstated. Alternatively, if local content is clearly diverging yet updates of initial source material is still desired, the local content need only be saved under a new title to preserve it from import overwrites.
We are really excited by this design and have already seen benefits in our own internal work and documentation. We see, for example, easier management of documentation and content, permanent (canonical) URLs for specific content items, and greater consistency and common language across all projects and documentation. Also, when all documentation is consolidated into one point with a coherent organizational and category structure, documentation gaps and inconsistencies also become apparent and can readily be fixed.
Now, with the release of these systems to the OpenStructs (Open Semantic Framework) and Citizen Dan communities, we hope to see broader contributions and expansion of the content. We encourage you to check on these two sites periodically to see how the content volume continues to grow! And, we welcome all project contributors to join in and help expand these knowledge bases!
We think this general design and approach — especially in relation to a total open solution mindset — has much to recommend it for other open source projects. We think these systems, now that we have designed and worked out the workflows, are amazingly simple to set up and maintain. We welcome other projects to adopt this approach for their own. Let us know if we can be of assistance, and we welcome ideas for improvement!
Yesterday Fred Giasson announced the release of code associated with Structured Dynamics‘ open source semantics components (also called sComponents). A semantic component is an ontology-driven component, or widget, based on Flex. Such a component takes record descriptions, ontologies and target attributes/types as inputs and then outputs some (possibly interactive) visualizations of the records.
Though not all layers are by any means complete, from an architectural standpoint the release of these semantic components provides the last and missing layer to complete our open semantic framework. Completing this layer now also enables Structured Dynamics to rationalize its open source Web sites and various groups and mailing lists associated with them.
We first announced the open semantic framework — or OSF — a couple of weeks back. Refer to that original post for more description of the general design . However, we can show this framework with the semantic components layer as illustrated by what some have called the “semantic muffin”:
The OSF stack consists of these layers, moving from existing assets upward through increasing semantics and usability:
Not all of these layers are required in a given deployment and their adoption need not be sequential or absolutely depend on prior layers. Nonetheless, they do layer and interact with one another in the general manner shown.
Current semantic components, or widgets, include: filter; tabular templates (similar to infoboxes); maps; bar, pie or linear charts; relationship (concept) browser; story and text annotator and viewer; workbench for creating structured views; and dashboard for presenting pre-defined views and component arrangements. These are generic tools that respond to the structures and data fed to them, adaptable to any domain without modification.
Though Fred’s post goes into more detail — with subsequent posts to get into the technical nuances of the semantic components — the main idea of these components is shown by the diagram below.
These various semantic components get embedded in a layout canvas for the Web page. By interacting with the various components, new queries are generated (most often as SPARQL queries) to the various structWSF Web services endpoints. The result of these requests is to generate a structured results set, which includes various types and attributes.
An internal ontology that embodies the desired behavior and display options (SCO, the Semantic Component Ontology) is matched with these types and attributes to generate the formal instructions to the semantic components. These instructions are presented via the sControl component, that determines which widgets (individual components, with multiples possible depending on the inputs) need to be invoked and displayed on the layout canvas. Here is a picture of the general workflow:
New interactions with the resulting displays and components cause the iteration path to be generated anew, again starting a new cycle of queries and results sets. As these pathways and associated display components get created, they can be named and made persistent for later re-use or within dashboard invocations.
As the release of the semantic components drew near, it was apparent that releases of previous layers had led to some fragmentation of Web sites and mailing lists. The umbrella nature of the open semantic framework enabled us to consolidate and rationalize these resources.
Our first change was to consolidate all OSF-related material under the existing OpenStructs.org Web site. It already contained the links and background material to structWSF and irON. To that, we added the conStruct and OSF material as well. This consolidation also allowed us to retire the previous conStruct Web site as well, which now re-directs to OpenStructs.
We also had fragmentation in user groups and mailing lists. Besides shared materials, these had many shared members. The Google groups for irON, structWSF and conStruct were thus archived and re-directed to the new Open Semantic Framework Google group and mailing list. Personal notices of the change and invites have been issued to all members of the earlier groups. For those interested in development work and interchange with other developers on any of these OSF layers, please now direct your membership and attention to the OSF group.
There has also been a revigoration of the developers’ community Web site at http://community.openstructs.org/. It remains the location for all central developer resources, including bug and issue tracking and links to SVNs.
Actual code SVN repositories are unchanged. These code repositories may be found at:
We hope you find these consolidations helpful. And, of course, we welcome new participants and contributors!
Structured Dynamics has been in a fervent — and, we believe, fruitful — design phase for the past 18 months. All of the working parts related to how to embrace becoming a semantic enterprise have now been defined and designed. Actual tools and components accompany many of these parts and have been deployed.
Recently, I have been speaking and blogging much about rationale, process, mindset and approach for how to bring semantics into the organization. But, prior to now, we have not spoken much about the overall design behind our approach. Today, as we complete our design phase and introduce our first exemplar instance of it — Citizen Dan  — we are finally in a position to describe this overall approach.
We term our approach the open semantic framework, also OSF. The open semantic framework is a combination of a layered architecture and modular software. The open semantic framework represents the software component of the four-component total open solution, recently described in a three part series. I return to this topic in the conclusion of this post.
Over the past nine months, I have been focusing my writing largely on the semantic enterprise, with more specificity regarding our Open SEAS (Semantic Enterprise Adoption and Solutions) initiative. In bits and pieces, these writings have tended to reflect a number of objectives:
To date, the result of these design objectives is perhaps best captured in my Seven Pillars of the Open Semantic Enterprise posting, as well as our general discussions regarding adaptive ontologies. Yet, still, these writings have been somewhat piecemeal. What this document attempts to do is to place all of these perspectives into a single, coherent whole.
Structured Dynamics has been a strong advocate for layered architectures, with clear APIs between layers as appropriate. But these layers are not “laminates” that completely cover the layer below, nor are they all needed or necessary. Depending on the circumstance, some layers are unneeded or superfluous. Layers may be added or not incrementally.
In this manner, then, the open semantic framework is perhaps more akin to a pearl, than to a laminate or cocoon. Each subsequent layer does not “embed” the layer prior to it, and some layers actually may inter-operate with multiple layers below or above it (this is notably true for the “ontologies” layer, which has interactions up and down the stack).
Nonetheless, we can envision this pearl of the open semantic framework and its layers as follows:
Others have termed this the “semantic muffin” or even “semantic muppet” or “semantic blob”. Whatever (hehe). The real idea is that layers may accrete (as in the growth of a pearl) and occur over time and be uneven. Each layer, though, does have a role to play (though it may not be needed in a given deployment), and does act to augment existing information assets in the transition to a semantic framework. Beginning at the core, each of these layers — with external references as appropriate for more details — is described below.
The open semantic framework is premised on leveraging existing information assets. Sure, once the framework is in place, new information can be brought into it in a more direct, semantic manner. But, the real thrust and benefit of this framework is to provide an incremental pathway for finally inter-operating and federating prior decades of data, structure and information assets.
These information assets may reside inside or outside the enterprise. They may (and DO!) exist in many formats and are described by many schema. They may come from internal transaction systems or warehouses, or may exist external on the Web or at supplier or partner sites. These information assets may span from conventional databases and relational data systems to XML interchange standards, Web pages and standard internal text or documents. In short, there is NO information asset that is not amenable to be included in this framework.
The information transformation layer provides either: 1) extraction of concepts and entities as structured metadata from source text or documents; or 2) conversion of existing data assets to interoperable form. As implemented by Structured Dynamics, the extractions are conducted by either scones (Subject Concept or Named EntitieS) or third-party utilities, and the conversions occur via irON (instance record Object Notation) or third-party “RDFizers“.
Depending on the source, the net result of the transformation is to produce interoperable data and information that can be ingested and used by other layers in the framework.
Though not strictly analogous, this layer bears some resemblance to the ETL (extract, transfer, load) utilities used in many enterprise information integration applications. Unlike those conventional systems, this information transformation layer also may capture and represent some of the source schema.
In all cases, however, these transformations are relatively simple and get parsed against the available structure (the ontologies, schema and entity reference lists) in the system to generate the semantic metadata (tags).
At this point, the extracted structure is generally at the level of instance records, or the ABox, with simple assertions of attribute-value pairs for specific records . Little schema transformation or mapping occurs at this layer (if such is needed, that occurs at the structWSF layer; see next). Actual federation or interoperation occurs at later layers based on the TBox structures .
This modular portion of the framework is explicitly designed with APIs to allow third-party tools to be plugged in and substituted.
The major workhorse of the open semantic framework is the structWSF (Web services framework) layer. structWSF is the most complicated of the OSF layers and has many supporting software packages and capabilities. The structWSF layer provides the standard, common interface (“canonical”) layer by which existing information assets get represented and presented to the outside world and to other layers in the OSF stack.
structWSF is a platform-independent Web services framework for accessing and exposing structured RDF data. Its central organizing perspective is that of the dataset. These datasets contain instance records, with the structural relationships amongst the data and their attributes and concepts defined via ontologies (schema with accompanying vocabularies; see below).
The structWSF middleware framework is generally RESTful in design and is based on HTTP and Web protocols and open standards. The current structWSF framework comes packaged with a baseline set of about twenty Web services in CRUD, browse, search and export and import. All Web services are exposed via APIs and SPARQL endpoints. Each request to an individual Web service returns an HTTP status and optionally a document of resultsets. Each results document can be serialized in many ways, and may be expressed as either RDF or pure XML. An internal representation, structXML , is used for internal communications across all structWSF Web services and with other layers.
structWSF has a central service that governs access rights and permissions. These rights occur at the level of the dataset, which gives immense flexibility to how data may be accessed, read, modified, created or deleted (or not). Datasets within a given structWSF instance may be accessed directly via API or via SPARQL queries to the instance’s endpoint. Depending on rights and query, results sets may be returned from a given structWSF instance in an infinite variety of ways.
This latter capability is the essential interface for subsequent layers in the open semantic framework stack. Depending on those subsequent components, pre-staged data and results sets may be returned for an essentially limitless variety of purposes.
Each structWSF instance also has a unique Web address that enables one or a multitude of instances to communicate and share with one another. This simple, but elegant, method enables structWSF instances to participate or not in potentially global or restricted local networks and collaboration environments. This is currently the largest untapped potential of structWSF with respect to its existing deployments.
The newest layer in the stack is the semantic components layer. This layer takes results sets — most often generated by a specific query or data slice request — from one or more structWSF instances and then presents that information via a variety of data visualization or data presentation widgets (what we specifically call ‘semantic components‘ due to their design ). The operation and sensitivity of these display components are themselves driven by a presentation and data analysis (including statistics) ontology.
Current display widgets include: filter; tabular templates (similar to infoboxes); maps; bar, pie or linear charts; relationship (concept) browser; story and text annotator and viewer; workbench for creating structured views; and dashboard for presenting pre-defined views and component arrangements. These are generic tools that respond to the structures and data fed to them, adaptable without modification to any domain.
As presently implemented by Structured Dynamics, this layer consists either of Flex data visualization components or structured data display templates based on Smarty. The inherent design allows for updates to other bases (such as HTML5). The layer may also be swapped out or substituted with third-party capabilities.
The strength and power of this system is governed by its own ontology, the Semantic Component Ontology (SCO) (see next).
This is an extremely flexible layer in the open semantic framework stack. Expect an ongoing series of explanatory blog posts and online resources in the upcoming weeks to explain this innovative capability.
The ontologies layer actually refers to all structured assets driving the system. As such, this layer might be considered the “brain” (though rather simply specified!) of the open semantic framework.
At a true schema or TBox level , the ontologies layer represents the concept and relationships of the domain at hand. This layer also hosts the specific local entities and prominent things (people, places, events, etc.) useful for extracting local and domain-specific relevance. However, those views are also supplemented with some administrative ontologies (two examples are SCO and irON) that guide how the user interfaces or widgets in the system should behave.
The concept level represents the “world view” of the specific instantiation of the open semantic framework at hand. This conceptual (TBox) view provides the structural organization of information, inferencing capabilities, and navigation, faceting and explorer structure. The entity (ABox) view provides tagging for prominent individuals and instances important to the domain at hand, and guides the structure behind data visualizations of attribute or indicator data.
The administrative level uses simple roles and relationships for attributes and indicators to inform the framework as to how and with what widget to display information. For example, a “type” of information that is geographically related can be instructed to use the map component as an option for display. Whether some information is used for totals, comparison purposes, or other specifications useful to data visualization and graphing may also be specified.
The language and relationships (predicates or properties) of these administrative ontologies are simple and straightforward. It is, for example, relatively easy to define data display functions at the broad dataset and attributes level. Simple determinations drive how results sets and their associated results types may be displayed, no matter what datasets or slices may be generated as a result of the queries or requests fed to the system.
The structure in these layers can be replaced by other structures for other instantiations and circumstances. Indeed, all other layers in the open semantic framework can remain relatively fixed while tailoring the instance to new domains solely via this layer. The ontologies layer is what gives any given instantiation of OSF — such as Citizen Dan — its unique focus and scope.
The thinnest layer (that is, least substantial with respect to this framework) is the content management system (CMS) layer. In its current form, the open semantic framework uses the Drupal CMS via our conStruct plug-in modules. The design of the framework, however, has explicitly accommodated the possibility that other CMSs may substitute for this role.
The CMS layer is optional if structWSF endpoints are sufficient or if simple Web pages hosting semantic components are deemed as adequate. Very small organizations or deployments may reasonably choose to have no CMS layer at all.
However, for most sites or portals with more than a few active users, it is desirable to have broad flexibility in theming (“skinning”), user rights and permissions, or other functionality. These are the roles of the CMS layer. Drupal, for example, is presently supported by more than 4500 third-party modules in every conceivable function, from polling to blogs and rating systems and bulletin boards.
For such generalized portals or collaboration environments, it makes sense to adopt and install a flexible CMS system, such as Drupal. Much of the user experience and functional environment can be provided through such means.
The open semantic framework is thus designed to reside easily in a CMS while also providing the hooks to take advantage of the generalized user rights and functionality of the CMS. In this manner, the open semantic framework is able to stay focused on its structured data and interoperability purposes, while still gaining the advantages of rich-featured content management systems.
With its inherent open-world orientation  and distributed and collaborative potential, the open semantic framework was designed from the outset to be Web-capable and Web-oriented:
A Web-oriented architecture (WOA) has a number of understood requirements, to which the open semantic framework adheres. Specifically, these design considerations support the framework as being part of WOA:
Citizen Dan is specifically geared to local governments and localities, with an emphasis on community indicator systems (CIS). CIS have become a popular way of measuring and tracking measures of local economic and social well-being; they are closely related to sustainability and how to measure it as used in many economic and environmental domains.
However, in the context of this post, what is really interesting about Citizen Dan is that its semantic framework is a completely open and generic one. The same set of tools and capabilities described on its details page can be applied to any domain that needs to manage and understand information in its own domain. This includes from unstructured text or documents to conventional structured databases.
What changes from domain to domain are the data structures (the ontologies, schema and entity reference lists; see above) that are fed to this open semantic framework. By swapping out new structures, what can be called Citizen Dan in one instance can morph to become Curriculum Carla in say, the education instance or Doctor Doolittle in the veterinary science instance .
We can illustrate these multiple instances as follows:
What this figure illustrates is that even a branded expression of the framework — such as Citizen Dan — is merely an instance of that framework. And, actually, when expressed in such a packaged manner, we can more accurately call the standard and bundled suite of generic functions and accompanying structure of Citizen Dan as an instantiation of the open semantic framework:
in·stan·ti·a·tion \in-‘stan(t)-shē-ā-shən\ (noun) 
By replacing the structure bases, and by tailoring the function suite appropriate to a given market and use, we can create many instantiations of the open semantic framework for different domains and markets. In this manner, Citizen Dan can be seen as an early exemplar of the framework, but not as a definer and limiter to it.
So far, this discussion has focused solely on considerations of software and architecture. While we see the power of the open semantic framework, highly useful in itself, this is inadequate alone to achieve acceptance and success in the enterprise (as we noted in our most recent posts). The very forces that are compelling enterprises to look at new options, are also the same ones that pose difficult hurdle rates for acceptance of open source.
To address this issue, we have developed a four-legged foundation to what we termed the total open solution. The solution involves software, structure, documentation and methods (or best practices). Each of these connect and relate to the other foundations.
The open semantic framework is clearly the software (and architecture) leg to this foundation. Again, however, what is interesting is that the mere swapping out of the structure can also make the system relatively ready for other domains.
We see these relationships in the following diagram, that also shows that the DocWiki portions of the solution embody the documentation (aside from code-level comments) and methods legs of the foundation:
Differences between domains may also lead to differences as to which components are included or not in that domain’s desired instantiation.
The hugely important implied point, however, from the diagram above, is to show how nearly universal the content and methods in the DocWiki may be to other domains. Because the deltas between domains largely result from structure and what specific functional components are included or not, it becomes clear that most documentation and practices shared with the DocWiki will be applicable across domains. Sure, the use cases and some of the specific terminology may change, but we can also now see a high degree of re-usability of documentation and knowledge base across markets. This realization makes the usefulness and leverage of the DocWiki even higher.
Developing “common language” by which to describe and convey things — especially new things like semantics that also have strong technical aspects — is tough, very tough. We are only now beginning on this process; we look to many in the community and elsewhere to help define informative and evocative terminology.
Per the original design objectives above, Structured Dynamics has approached the challenge of the semantic enterprise in what we think is both a pragmatic and a new way. The insistence on preserving and respecting existing information assets, matched with the opportunities and different mindsets arising from an open-world approach , have necessitated thinking through new designs and developing new concepts. Any time such new thinking and concepts occurs, new language and new metaphors must accompany it.
While certainly there are components and various software packages that populate and comprise an open semantic framework, the framework is also just as importantly a world view or way to think about information, information development, and its architecture. For example, a pivotal concept is that an open semantic framework is built around generic tools responsive to the information structures fed to them. This realization shifts the locus of emphasis from software development per se to creating, managing and adapting data and information structures. While this democratizes the information development process and is more inclusive of all knowledge workers, it also imposes needs for new toolsets and business processes. We are only at the nascent stages of understanding and learning about these differences.
Similarly, a development approach that is inherently incremental and leverages (rather than replaces or displaces) existing information assets means IT projects need to be considered in a new light. Small projects with more emphasis on tangible and demonstrable benefits will alter budgets, lower risks, and place a need for quicker turnaround. Like the architecture of the open semantic framework itself, projects based on OSF are also more distributed, decentralized and modular.
With such decentralization also comes the need for mechanisms and systems to overcome vendor “lock-in” and proprietary systems. A key thrust in support of what we have called the total open solution and its mixture of documentation and methods to accompany software and structure is specifically targeted at this issue. Tools and means for collaboration and concurrent contributions are another possible answer. Prior software practices in agile development and version control will see extensions to all manner of information development across the enterprise.
We are proud of our design work and proof-testing with clients over the past 18 months. We believe the open semantic framework and its implications to be a fundamental shift in how organizations need to think about their information development, existing information assets, and IT budgets and processes. We know widescale adoption is not yet at hand — enterprises are justifiably conservative when it comes to new thinking. But, given global competition and tight pocketbooks, the open semantic framework is a formulation to which enterprises and governments should pay very close attention.
In the first part to this series, we began with the argument that open source software alone was not sufficient to meet the required acceptance factors in the enterprise. As a guiding way to create the right mindset around these issues we shared the saying that we have adopted at Structured Dynamics that, “We’re successful when we are not needed.”
In the second part of this series we described the four legs of a stable, open source solution. These four legs are software, structure, methods and documentation. When all four are provided, we termed this a total open solution.
Now, in this third and concluding part to our series, we introduce the open source documentation and methodology system called ‘DocWiki’. It complements the base open source software, in the process completing the conditions for a total open solution.
Though we call this system ‘DocWiki’, it is not meant to be a brand or particular product description for what Structured Dynamics is offering. Rather, ‘DocWiki’ is merely a placeholder name for a generic, open source system and knowledge base that can be downloaded, installed, branded, modified and extended in whatever way the user sees fit. ‘DocWiki’ is a baseline documentation and methodology “starter kit” that can be dressed up in new clothes or packaged and named in whatever manner best suited to a given deployment.
In describing the major components of this ‘DocWiki’ system we will again use our Citizen Dan initiative  as we did in Part 2. This gives us a real use case, though the same approach is applicable to any open source information management initiative by enterprises.
We call the specific version of the ‘DocWiki’ used in the case of Citizen Dan the ‘CIS DocWiki‘ (for community indicator systems), specific to the domain and local government focus of Citizen Dan. Similarly, the structured vocabulary and ontology that guides the system is the MUNI ontology. For other information development initiatives, the specific content of these components would be swapped out for ones appropriate to that initiative.
A number of desires and objectives intersected to guide the design of the ‘DocWiki’ system. We wanted:
In first formulating this design, our assumption was the major building blocks would be an open source document management system linked with some form of version control. Though we think such a formulation could work OK, our exposure to the MIKE2.0 methodology actually caused us to re-look at and re-think a wiki-based approach. Ultimately the trump card that decided the design for us was familiarity and ease-of-use.
The resulting architecture of the full ‘DocWiki’ system is shown below:
What is cool about this design is that a single software download install with a few extensions (Mediawiki, the Wikipedia software, plus some standard extensions and judicious use of Semantic Mediawiki) and a single loadable database are all that is required to transfer and install the ‘DocWiki’ system.
To better describe this system, we will focus on three major interconnecting pieces in this architectural diagram: the knowledge base; the vocabulary and structure (ontology); and the authoring and publishing system (wiki).
The pre-loaded content for the ‘DocWiki’ system comes from its knowledge base. This is provided as a text-exported MySQL database that can be modified en masse before loading (such as substituting ‘YourName’ for ‘DocWiki’). The exemplar upon which this knowledge base is modeled is the MIKE2.0 framework.
MIKE2.0 (Method for an Integrated Knowledge Environment ) provides a comprehensive methodology that can be applied across a number of different projects within the information management space. MIKE2.0 provides an organized way to describe the why, when, how and who of information management projects. Via standard templates and structures, MIKE2.0 provides a consistent basis to describe and manage these projects, and in a way that helps promote their interoperability and consistency across the enterprise.
MIKE2.0 has a generalized methodology and set of templates applicable to initiatives, the phases, activities and tasks to undertake them, and supporting assets. Supporting assets can range from glossaries and definition of terms and concepts to very specific technical documents or background material. The entire system is logical and applies a consistent design and organizational structure and categories.
For our purposes, we wanted a complete, turnkey content knowledge base. This meant that we needed to accommodate all forms of project management and guidance, ranging from specific “how-to” and technical discussions to the entire suite of background and supporting material. The scope of this knowledge content is defined as what a new person assigned a lead or implementation responsibility would need to read or master.
As a destination site MIKE2.0 is quite broad: it embraces the ability to model virtually any information management initiative. This makes MIKE2.0 an invaluable source of structure and methodology guidance, but also results in it being quite limited in the specific how-tos associated with any given initiative. I have earlier spoken about the structure of MIKE2.0 and in particular its applicability to the semantic enterprise.
The strength of MIKE2.0, however, is that its structure can be grabbed and quickly applied to form an organizational and structural basis for filling out the knowledge base for any specific information development initiative. And, that is exactly what we did with the ‘CIS DocWiki.’
MIKE2.0 hosts and maintains its project-related structure in Mediawiki (with some extensions). Combined with its templates, this provides a rapid-start baseline for beginning to tailor and flesh out the specific details for a given information management initiative. Thus, after copying broad aspects of the MIKE2.0 system into the incipient ‘DocWiki’, it was relatively straightforward to let the existing structure and templates of MIKE2.0 guide next steps.
As of today’s date, the ‘CIS DocWiki’ contains about 300 substantive articles, a complete activity and tasking structure, and various re-usable templates based on Semantic Mediawiki for structured and consistent access and retrieval. New tasks and structure can be readily added to the system. Existing structure or content can be deleted or marked as archive for non-display. We are still gathering all requisite content pieces, and anticipate by first public release that the baseline knowledge base will include 2x to 3x the scale of its current content.
For new ‘CIS DocWiki’ (or Citizen Dan-based) deployments, this means the knowledge base can be completely modified and extended for local circumstances. The set-up of the Mediawiki instance is separate from the loading or modification of the knowledge base, which means the look-and-feel of the entire system, not to mention user rights and permissions, can also be readily tailored for local requirements.
The core content of the ‘CIS DocWiki’ and its basis in a set structure and methodology (derived from MIKE2.0) means that the knowledge base is also adaptable for other broader information development areas, especially in the semantic enterprise or semantic government arenas. Thus, while Structured Dynamics is first releasing the ‘CIS DocWiki’ in the context of Citizen Dan and semantic government, we also are developing a parallel instance for the Open SEAS approach to the semantic enterprise.
The approach taken here is somewhat different than the standard wiki use. As experts, we are basically sole authoring (with contributions from selected collaborators and our clients) the starting basis of the knowledge base. Unlike many wikis, this enables us to be quite consistent in content, style, and organization. Such an approach allows us to present a coherent and complete starting content and methodology foundation. However, once delivered and installed for a given deployment, its users are then free to extend and change this knowledge foundation in the standard wiki manner. Whether those subsequent extensions are free-form or more tightly controlled and managed is the choice of the new deployment’s administrators.
Strictly speaking, the vocabularies and structures (including, of course, ontologies) that drive our semantic government or semantic enterprise offerings are also part of the knowledge base. And, in fact, many of these aspects, especially related to the actual operating of the instances, are included as part of the standard knowledge base.
However, the applicable domain ontology itself is separately maintained. Descriptions of how to use and modify such ontologies are part of the general ‘DocWiki’ knowledge base, but the ontology is not. This arm’s length-separation is done to acknowledge that the ontology has independent use and value apart from the knowledge base or the software (Citizen Dan, in this case) that is the focus of it.
In the Citizen Dan instance, this structure is the MUNI ontology. MUNI is a general local government domain ontology that can find use in a broad array of circumstances, using or not Citizen Dan. Thus, like other ontologies developed and maintained by Structured Dynamics, such as BIBO (the Bibliographic Ontology), the ontology itself and its documentation, discussion forums and use cases are maintained separately.
The first release of MUNI is still under development and will be released this summer.
The software framework that hosts and manages all of this content is the Mediawiki software, originally developed for Wikipedia. This framework is supported by a number of standard extensions packaged with the ‘DocWiki’ distribution. One of the more notable extensions is Semantic Mediawiki. Mediawiki also is the wiki framework underlying MIKE2.0, so content sharing between the systems is straightforward.
The first use of the ‘DocWiki’ is to add new content to the knowledge base and to modify or extend what is provided in the baseline. For straight authoring, ‘DocWiki’ offers the standard wikitext basis for content entry and editing, as well as the WikED enhanced editor and the FCKEditor WYSIWYG rich-text editor. Each of these may be turned on or off at will.
All of the baseline content is fully organized and categorized via a standard structure. Pre-existing templates aid in entering new content in specific areas consistently or in providing standard administrative ways of tagging content for completeness or need for editorial attention. Tasks and concepts, in particular, follow set ways of entry and description. These set templates, some forms-based and some derived from Semantic Mediawiki, are also tied into automatic internal scripts for listing and organizing various items. So long as new material is entered properly, it will be reflected in various stats and listings. Unlike sole reliance on Semantic Mediawiki, the ‘DocWiki’ approach is a mix of standard wiki categories and semantic types. Both are used for effective organization of the knowledge base.
Besides the knowledge base of domain content and “how-to”, the system also comes pre-packaged with many wiki “how-to” and best practices guidance for using the system effectively and consistently. Of course, a given deployment may or may not enforce all of these practices. A poorly administered instance, for example, could degenerate fairly quickly and lose the native structure and organization of the baseline system.
As with standard wikis, there is a history of prior page revisions that gives the system rollback and version control. Mediawiki has a pretty good user access and permissions framework ranging from access, reading, editing and to uploads.
Besides the standard and required extensions, ‘DocWiki’ also comes packaged with the necessary settings and configuration files to operate “out-of-the-box” in its designed baseline mode. Of course, these settings, too, can be changed and modified by site administrators, and ‘DocWiki’ also includes guidance on how to do that.
A little known but highly useful part of the Mediawiki API allows direct export of XHTML content . Then, with minor XSLT conversion templates, it is possible to strip out wiki-specific conventions (such as the editing of individual sections) or to create straight XML versions. When this is combined with the use of internal ‘DocWiki’ CSS style sheets that impose some clean and semantic style identifiers, a common canonical output basis for content is possible.
From that point, a given deployment may use its own CSS styles to theme output content. Output Web pages (XHTML) or XML files then can be processed using existing and accurate utilities to produce PDF or *.doc documents. Then, with systems such as OpenOffice, an even wider variety of document formats can be produced. These facilities mean that the ‘DocWiki’ can also act as a single-source publishing environment.
In its initial release, re-purposing ‘DocWiki’ content into other presentations (for example, combining sections from multiple pages into a new document as opposed to re-using existing pages as is) will require creating new wiki pages and then cutting-and-pasting the desired content. However, it should also be noted that both DocBook and DITA have been applied to Mediawiki installations . It should be possible to enable a more flexible re-purposing framework for ‘DocWiki’ moving into the future.
The ‘CIS DocWiki’ is meant to accompany the first release of Citizen Dan, likely by the end of summer. The MUNI ontology will also be released roughly at the same time. At release, the ‘CIS DocWiki’ is anticipated to have on the order of 500-800 baseline content and “how to” articles.
Depending on time availability and other commitments, Structured Dynamics will also be using this information to build a semantic government composite offering to MIKE2.0. We will be contributing this new offering for free, similar to what we have done earlier for a semantic enterprise offering.
Subsequent to those events, we will then be modifying the ‘CIS DocWiki’ for the semantic enterprise domain. Much of the necessary content will have already been assembled for the ‘CIS DocWiki’.
Paradoxically, while developing such knowledge bases and systems such as ‘DocWiki’ appears to be extra work, from our standpoint as developers it is useful and efficient. Structured Dynamics already researches and assembles much material and tries to “document as it goes.” Having the ‘DocWiki’ framework not only provides a consistent and coherent way to organize that information, but it also helps to point out essential gaps in our offerings.
The ‘DocWiki’ delivers the methods, documentation and portions of the structure to a total open solution. The ‘DocWiki’ is the primary means — along with software development and accompanying code-level and API documentation, of course — for us to fulfill our mantra that “We’re successful when we are not needed.” As we pointed out in Part 1 of this series, we really think such an attitude is ultimately a self-interested one. The better we can address the acceptance factors in the enterprise for our offerings, the more opportunities we will gain.
We would like to think that other enlightened open source software developers, especially those in the semantic space but certainly not limited to them, will see the wisdom of this four-legged foundation to total open solutions. Up until now, pragmatic guidance for what it takes to create a complete open source offering to businesses and enterprises has been lacking.
The tools, methods, and workflows all exist for making total open solutions real today. All of the pieces are themselves open source. There are many useful guides for best practices across the pipeline. It is just that — prior to this — no one apparently took the time to assemble and articulate them. We think this three-part series and some of the “how to” guidance in the ‘DocWiki’ system can help fix this oversight.
Ultimately, with wider adoption by developers, goaded in part by demands of the marketplace for them, we would hope that additional innovations and ideas may be forthcoming to improve the industry’s ability to offer total open source solutions. Adding just a small bit of attentive effort to how we organize and package what we know is but a small price to pay for greater acceptance and success.