Posted:January 8, 2007

Firefox 2A New Generation of Browser Wars is Brewing

Since its release in early 2004 (with version 0.8), Firefox has achieved phenomenal success, passing the 200 million download mark in late July 2006 and now estimated at the 282 million level or so (you can see or get a copy of the counter from Spread Firefox). Though there are seasonality factors and growth, Firefox downloads are now on the order of 3.5 million to 4 million per week.

After creaming Netscape in the browser wars of the late 1990s, it is widely acknowledged that Microsoft left Internet Explorer to languish for about five years or so, giving the opening for Firefox (and earlier Opera, though at much lower market share) to gain a toehold with fresh innovations. Some of the innovative hallmarks of early Firefox were tabbed browsing, broad operating system (OS) compatibility (Linux, Windows, Mac), constant improvements, and full and complete adherence to open standards and code access.

Though, of course, downloads by no means translate into actual users (many download and then abandon and many downloads are for version upgrades), nonetheless various independent market research firms estimate steady market share gains for Firefox. According to a report last week in ComputerWorld:

Propelled by the release of its Version 2.0 in October, the free Firefox Web browser saw almost a 50% increase in use during 2006, according to one Web measurement firm. The open-source Firefox browser was used by 14% of computers online at the end of 2006, according to Aliso Viejo, Calif.-based Net Applications. That was 46% higher than its 9.6% share of the browser market at the beginning of the year.

General consensus views are that actual Firefox market share is on the order of 12% to 15% currently.

Microsoft is fighting back, with its recent release of IE v 7 adding tabbed browsing and many of the innovative features first brought by Firefox. (This has also resulted in some hilarious send-ups, such as this mock MS site touting the purchase of Firefox). If nothing else, Firefox has helped add new competitive juice to the browser market. But, there is an even more important stealthy factor underlying these trends that bodes very well indeed for Firefox’s future and ongoing threats to Microsoft.

Stealth Extensions Growth

The Mozilla team when initiating Firefox adopted a very prescient stance: to completely open up, modularize and simplify the architecture and to publish clear and easy guidelines for extending it. This stance enabled a lean-and-mean initial browser download but more importantly provided an inviting framework for extending the system through new themes and functionality. These add-ons initially started quite slowly and first consisted of infrastructure extensions. Then, as Firefox code and documentation matured, a broader group of developers began to also see this farsighted vision and began contributing their own extensions.

Today, Firefox has just passed the 2,200 mark for extensions as maintained by its own add-on directory service. This growth is accelerating, as my figure constructed from Mozilla’s online data shows:

My own research suggests only about 90% of available extensions are listed officially on the Mozilla add-on site. The remaining are company- or Web-site-specific extensions or are experimental ones maintained (often largely) by universities. It is perhaps likely that there are about 3,000 or so extensions (separate from another 1,500 or so themes) currently extant.

What is most notable with recent trends is the growth — the number of extensions has grown by what I estimate to be 123% in the past twelve months (based on Mozilla directory data) — and the comprehensiveness and sophistication of the new offerings. Extensions are now being added at about the rate of 10 per day! and in every conceivable subject area.

As with other aspects of the Internet, extension popularity follows the typical power curve. The most popular of the extensions, such as ad blockers or video download assistants, can reach 150,000 per week or more. Quite a few extensions exceed millions in total downloads and some with many version upgrades exceed 10 to 20 million downloads. The distribution by rank popularity and downloads for these 2,200 extensions is shown in the figure below:

Again, using Mozilla data, extension downloads are on the order of 3 million per week, or nearly one extension per standard Firefox download. These extensions are growing in popularity and ubiquity and some users have documented adding 200 or more extension to their basic Firefox package. (Of course, such numbers are absurd per user, and rational means for managing and organizing multiple extensions are also emerging.) Indeed, I will shortly publish another list of about 30 extensions of specific benefit to semantic Web browsing and tasks. Extension bundles of benefit to every need and interest can easily be found.

The Role of the Browser as Platform

What is most compelling about these trends is the emerging centrality of the browser as the dominant software application in most users’ computing lives. This is part of the ongoing trend to Web OSs, as my earlier post on Parakey noted (whose founders are Firefox developers with a strong background in XUL). Firefox is truly notable for the beauty and clean design as a platform for hosting Internet applications. Using XML, XUL and its chrome files, virtually every aspect of the Firefox platform is open to extension. The Javascript examples and the fact that many of the available extensions are also fully available in source code with non-limiting open source licenses provides many examples and exemplars for still further extension innovation.

So, while Microsoft may be able to match browser-wide feature innovations such as tabbed browsing, unless it chooses as well to open the IE platform to a similar extent (granted a difficult task given the inherent proprietary architecture), I believe Microsoft will be hard pressed to maintain its dominant browser market share under assault from the global developer community. Not only are we seeing the democratization of software development through open source, we are also going to increasingly see the democratization of programming as non-programmers in the conventional sense embrace the tools and techniques being innovated by the likes of the Firefox community.

Posted:January 5, 2007

AI3′s Comprehensive Listing of Semantic Web and Related Tools

This AI3 blog maintains Sweet Tools, the largest listing of about 800 semantic Web and -related tools available. Most are open source. Click here to see the current listing!

Since my first posting of 175 semantic Web tools and then an update to 250, the listing has become quite popular and an apparent asset to the semantic Web community. While this AI3 tools listing is not as precise and restricted as the “official” ESW one on the W3C’s Web site, it does contain useful adjunct tools in such areas as parsers, natural language processing, wrappers and the like that are also of potential usefulness to semantic Web practitioners.

Because of the popularity of this listing, I decided to make it easier to access and update by others in the community. Thus, I converted the listing to a permanent feature of this blog (see the Sweet Tools link to the upper left in the Main Links area) as well as posted a publicly accessible Google spreadsheet link (requires Google account!) for direct updates.

Current Listing

As of the date of this posting, I have added 42 new tools since version 5. The listings are posted as an Exhibit-based lightweight structured data publication (as explained here), which allows filtering, sorting and current statistics.

I continue to characterize the listings by: 1) FOSS (free and open source software), with about 90% of the listings being so; and 2) a categorization of the tool type. Currently, there are 27 categories listed, of which some of the tools are surely mis-characterized. If you add a tool (see below), please try to use these categories or suggest a new one to me directly.

I should also note that I track about 250 companies that provide semantic Web software (generally) under license fees. Most of those companies are NOT included in this listing; I may add these at a later point, but such tools are generally quite expensive. (To learn more about these companies, you may want to try SweetSearch, and then restrict by the ‘Company’ facet.)

Finally, you might be interested in the open source popularity of these listings. Raphael Volz published a popularity analysis of the earlier 250 tools listing based on SourceForge statistics; very interesting reading! Thanks, Raphael.

Selective v. Comprehensive Listings

I should mention that I have seen some commentary within the semantic Web community of the desirability of compiling “best of” or “Top X” tools listings for the semantic Web. While such lists have their place, they are no substitute for comprehensive listings. First, semantic tools are still in their infancy and it is premature to bestow “best of” in most categories. Second, many practitioners, such as me, are working to extend and improve existing tools. This requires more comprehensive listings, not narrower ones. And, last, what may ultimately contribute to semantic meaning on the Internet may well extend beyond semantic Web tools, strictly defined. An ivory tower focus on purity is not the means to encourage experimentation and innovation. Many Web 2.0 initiatives, including tagging and social collaboration, may very well point to more effective nucleation points for expanding semantic Web efforts than W3C-compliant efforts.

These are some of the reasons that I have been happy to include simple Firefox extensions or relatively narrow format converters for my listings. Who knows? You never know when and where you might find a gem! (And I’m not speaking solely of Ruby!)

Two Ways to Contribute

If you have new tools to add, corrections to current listings, or any other suggestions, you have two ways to contribute. The easiest way is to post a comment to this entry and I will update the listing based on your input. The second way is to access the Google spreadsheet link itself and make changes directly. I will continue to keep this spreadsheet public unless spam proves to be a problem.

Thanks for your interest and Enjoy!

Posted:November 2, 2006

Just in Time for Christmas: Vista in the Crosshairs

Or, Give your computer the bird.

Computers are frustrating. Creating documents, finding files, sharing information — why do everyday things still seem so tedious and counterintuitive?

Dave Kushner interviews Blake Ross and gets a preview of his new Parakey venture in the November issue of IEEE Spectrum. Ross, a 20-yr old wunderkind and one of the driving forces behind the Firefox browser, has teamed with Joe Hewitt of Firefox and Firebug fame to create an absolutely disruptive new approach to computing. Quoting from Kushner’s article:

Just as with Firefox, Ross began this project by asking himself one simple question: What's bad about today's software? The answer . . . resided in the gap between the desktop and the Web. . . . The problem, according to Ross, is there's no simple, cohesive tool to help people store and share their creations online. Currently, the steps involved depend on the medium. If you want to upload photos, for example, you have to dump your images into one folder, then transfer them to an image-sharing site such as Flickr. The process for moving videos to YouTube or a similar site is completely different. If you want to make a personal Web page within an online community, you have to join a social network, say, MySpace or Friendster. If you intend to rant about politics or movies, you launch a blog and link up to it from your other pages. The mess of the Web, in other words, leaves you trapped in one big tangle of actions, service providers, and applications. Ross's answer is . . . Parakey, "a Web operating system that can do everything an OS can do." Translation: it makes it really easy to store your stuff and share it with the world. Most or all of Parakey will be open source, under a license similar to Firefox's.

Thus, Parakey aims to bridge the divide between desktop operating systems and the Internet, using the browser as the common user interface. Parakey will give users the ability to easily host their own Web sites via their desktop. Even though Parakey works within the browser (all leading ones are to be supported), it actually runs on the local computer. This enables developers to do many things not allowable in a traditional Web site. By the use of easily assigned “keys”, the desktop owner can also easily and simply post or allow access to content of their choosing — from documents to photos to files — to become “public” to the distribution lists associated with these keys. Remote users get issued cookies so that their access to the local resources is seamless and without friction.

Similar to the models of the Firefox plugin or Web services, the basic Parakey platform can be easily extended. Ross and Hewitt have created a programming language, JUL (for ‘Just another User interface Language’), likely similar to the Mozilla XUL, for developers to write these components and extensions. Though the launch date for Parakey is being kept under wraps, all signals point to before January. The pre-launch company site allows interested parties to enter their email address to receive formal notification of the launch.

It is rather amazing that this article came out on the same day, yesterday, as John Milan’s blog post on on Richard McManus’s Read/Write Web blog. In that post, Milan posits Mozilla as another one of the gorillas (elephants) in the room and Adobe’s Apollo project as another “under the radar” approach to the desktop/Internet browser convergence.

All of this seems rather ironic as the world (Redmond) awaits the release of the long-delayed Windows update, Vista. Even the mighty do indeed live in interesting times.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on November 2, 2006 at 11:48 am in Adaptive Information, Open Source | Comments (3)
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Posted:September 29, 2006

Matt Asay, of OSBC and Alfresco, makes a very telling point in a recent post: One power of open source (if done right) is its suitability to interoperability and extensibility. As Matt states:

. . . let me give him/you an idea of what we’re already doing in this space. It’s not a question of what we might do, but what we’re already doing. You can get Alfresco integrated with Asterisk (VoiceRD from Novacoast) and SugarCRM (CRM) today. (And since our 1.4 Business Process Management release, we already have BPM in spades.)

Now extend this. Add some JasperSoft or Pentaho for Business Intelligence (perhaps reporting capabilities). Some DimDim for web conferencing. Some Zimbra or Scalix for email/collaboration. Want to scale this out on a grid? Get yourself some 3Tera. Etc. The great thing about all of this is that we don’t have to do all of it ourselves. In many instances, enterprises are already extending Alfresco (or these other projects) to meet these and other needs. Hence, when a large pharmaceutical/medical devices company wanted wiki functionality in Alfresco, it didn’t ask us. It just built it in.

One could certainly make the argument that first-generation open source like Linux was adopted for cost, risk and code-access purposes, and that second-generation open source like JBoss or Red Hat was adopted because of completeness and support across a broader portion of the stack. But I think what we are now seeing in third-generation open source efforts like Alfresco or LogicBlaze is the enterprise-scale integration and interoperability of components.

Open source combined with open standards avoid vendor lock-in and points the way to a very, very different application and deployment paradigm: identifying, evaluating and glueing, rather than baking the cake each time from scratch.

Posted by AI3's author, Mike Bergman Posted on September 29, 2006 at 12:55 pm in Open Source | Comments (0)
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Posted:September 22, 2006
This AI3 blog maintains Sweet Tools, the largest listing of about 800 semantic Web and -related tools available. Most are open source. Click here to see the current listing!

I have been assembling for some time a listing of semantic Web-related software applications and tools. My first partial listing had about 50 sources. I recently noted the W3C’s semantic Web wiki listing of about 70 sources. I then came across the EU’s AKT (Advanced Knowledge Technologies) project, which also has about 75 tools compiled. Protégé also has a fairly long list of plugins, but not unfortunately well organized. Complicating matters still was the listing of natural language processing tools listed at the Natural Language Software Registy, another fantastic resource particularly in the annotation and information extraction arena.

Semantic Web tool sets span from comprehensive engineering environments to specific converters and editors and the like. The entire workflow extends from getting the initial content, annotating or tagging it according to existing or built ontologies, reconciling heterogeneities, and then storing and managing the RDF or OWL with subsequent querying and inferencing.

There are certainly more tools extant, and I made some choices to exclude some marginal tools (Sourceforge, for example, has more than 200 semantic Web-related projects, but the vast majority appear moribund with no actual software to download).

Thus, listed below, are today’s current, most comprehensive list of 175 semantic Web software tools and applications. I am now further characterizing these offline as to open source v. proprietary and categorizing according to SW-related workflow. I may later post those expansions.

I also welcome tool suggestions. I think the ESW tools listing is the best place ongoing for such a compilation, but so far I am not liking what I am seeing in vendors using hype to characterize their tools versus more dispassionate descriptions by practitioners.

NAME (URL) DESCRIPTION
3store A core C library that uses MySQL to store its raw RDF data and caches, forming an important part of the infrastructure required to support a range of knowledgeable services
4Suite 4RDF The 4Suite 4RDF is an open-source platform for XML and RDF processing implemented in Python with C extensions
ActiveRDF ActiveRDF is a library for accessing RDF data from Ruby programs. It can be used as data layer in Ruby-on-Rails. You can address RDF resources, classes, properties, etc. programmatically, without queries
Adaptiva A user-centred ontology building environment, based on using multiple strategies to construct an ontology, minimising user input by using adaptive information extraction
Aduna Metadata Server The Aduna Metadata Server automatically extracts metadata from information sources, like a file server, an intranet or public web sites. The Aduna Metadata Server is a powerful and scalable store for metadata
AeroText Entity extraction engine from Lockheed Martin
AJAX Client for SPARQL AJAX Client for SPARQL is a simple AJAX client that can be used for running SELECT queries against a service and then integrating them with client-side Javascript code
AKT Research Map A competence map for members of the AKT project
AKT-Bus An open, lightweight, Web standards-based communication infrastructure to support interoperability among knowledge services.
AllegroGraph Franz Inc’s AllegroGraph is a system to load, store and query RDF data. It includes a SPARQL interface and RDFS reasoning. It has a Java and a Prolog interface
Alembic The Alembic Workbench project from Mitre has as its goal the creation of a natural language engineering environment for the development of tagged corpora
Almo An ontology-based workflow engine in Java
Altova SemanticWorks Visual RDF and OWL editor that auto-generates RDF/XML or nTriples based on visual ontology design
Amilcare An adaptive information extraction tool designed to support document annotation for the Semantic Web.
ANNIE – Open Source Information Extraction An open-source robust information extraction system
Aperture Aperture is a Java framework for extracting and querying full-text content and metadata from various information systems (e.g. file systems, web sites, mail boxes) and the file formats (e.g. documents, images) occurring in these systems
Applications of FCA in AKT Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is used in a variety of application scenarios in AKT in order to perform concept-based domain analysis and automatically deduce a taxonomy lattice of that domain.
Aqua AQUA is a system which answer questions written in English. It combines several technologies Natural Language Processing, Logic, Information Retrieval and Ontologies.
ARC ARC is a lightweight, SPARQL-enabled RDF system for mainstream Web projects. It is written in PHP and has been optimized for shared Web environments
Armadillo Exploits the redundancies apparent in the Internet, combining many information sources to perform document annotation with minimal human intervention.
ArtEquAkt A system that automatically extracts information about artists from the web, populates an ontology, then uses the knowledge to generate personalised biographies.
Automatic Support for Enterprise Modelling and Workflow Knowledge management using multi-modelling techniques and how modelling activities may be assisted with automation based on formal methods.
BBN OWL Validator BBN OWL Validator
Bibster A semantics-based bibliographic peer-to-peer system
Bossam Bossam, a rule-based OWL reasoner (free, well-documented, closed-source)
Brahms Brahms is a fast main-memory RDF/S storage, capable of storing, accessing and querying large ontologies. It is implemented as a set of C++ classes
BuddySpace Instant messaging with custom map visualizations, semantics of presence (beyond ‘offline’/'online’/'away’ status) and value-added web services (group alerts, bots, inferences via personal profiles)
Callisto The Callisto annotation tool was developed to support linguistic annotation of textual sources for any Unicode-supported language with annotation support from jATLAS
CASD A tool for producing system architecture diagrams from service and data descriptions.
Cerebra Server A technology platform that is used by enterprises to build model-driven applications and highly adaptive information integration infrastructure; company recently bought by webMethods
COCKATOO A knowledge acquisition tool which can be used to produce a set of cases for use with a Case-Based Reasoning system.
COHSE – Conceptual Open Hypermedia Services Environment COHSE researches methods to improve significantly the quality, consistency and breadth of linking of WWW documents at retrieval and authoring time.
CS AKTiveSpace CS AKTiveSpace is a smart browser interface for a Semantic Web application that provides ontologically motivated information about the UK computer science research community.
ClassAKT A text classification web service for classifying documents according to the ACM Computing Classification System.
Compendium Compendium is a semantic, visual hypertext tool for supporting collaborative domain modelling and real time meeting capture
ConRef A service discovery system which uses ontology mapping techniques to support different user vocabularies
ConcepTool A system to model, analyse, verify, validate, share, combine, and reuse domain knowledge bases and ontologies, reasoning about their implication.
Corese Corese stands for Conceptual Resource Search Engine. It is an RDF engine based on Conceptual Graphs (CG) and written in Java. It enables the processing of RDF Schema and RDF statements within the CG formalism, provides a rule engine and a query engine accepting the SPARQL syntax
cwm The Closed World Machine (CWM) data manipulator, rules processor and query system mostly using using the Notation 3 textual RDF syntax. It also has an incomplete OWL Full and a SPARQL access. It is written in Python
Cypher Cypher Generates RDF and SeRQL representation of natural language statements and phrases
D2R Server D2R Server, turns relational databases into SPARQL endpoints, based on Jena’s Joseki
D3E – Digital Document Discourse Environment D3E enables the easy conversion of websites or structured documents into interactive discussion sites
Deep Query Manager Search federator from deep Web sources
DOME A programmable XML editor which is being used in a knowledge extraction role to transform Web pages into RDF, and available as Eclipse plug-ins. DOME stands for DERI Ontology Management Environment
DOSE A distributed platform for semantic annotation
Drive Drive is an RDF parser written in C# for the .NET platform
ekoss.org A collaborative knowledge sharing environment where model developers can submit advertisements
Ellogon Ellogon is a multi-lingual, cross-platform, general-purpose language engineering environment, based on the earlier TIPSTER approach
Endeca Facet-based content organizer and search platform
Eprep An add-on for the Eprints document archive which uses text extraction to automatically create the bibliographic metadata needed for the submission of a new document.
eServices The e-Services framework provides advanced scholarly services (in particular visualisations) using distributed metadata.
Euler Euler is an inference engine supporting logic based proofs. It is a backward-chaining reasoner enhanced with Euler path detection. It has implementations in Java, C#, Python, Javascript and Prolog. Via N3 it is interoperable with W3C Cwm
ExtrAKT ExtrAKT is a tool for extracting ontologies from Prolog knowledge bases.
F-Life F-Life is a tool for analysing and maintaining life-cycle patterns in ontology development.
FaCT++ FaCT++ is an OWL DL Reasoner implemented in C++
Fastr Fastr is a parser for term and variant recognition. Fastr take as input a corpus and a list of terms and ouputs the indexed corpus in which terms and variants are recognized
Floodsim A prototype system which demonstrates the benefits of applying semantically rich service descriptions (expressed using Semantic Web technologies) to Web Services.
FOAF-o-matic Online FOAF generator
FOAM Framework for ontology alignment and mapping
Foxtrot Foxtrot is a recommender system which represents user profiles in ontological terms, allowing inference, bootstrapping and profile visualization.
FreeLing FreeLing is an open source language analysis tool suite. The FreeLing package consists of a library providing language analysis services (such as morphological analysis, date recognition, PoS tagging, etc.) The current version (1.2) of the package provides tokenizing, sentence splitting, morphological analysis, NE detection, date/number/currency recognition, PoS tagging, and chart-based shallow parsing
GATE – General Architecture for Text Engineering GATE is a stable, robust, and scalable open-source infrastructure which allows users to build and customise language processing components, while it handles mundane tasks like data storage, format analysis and data visualisation.
Gnowsis A semantic desktop environment
GrOWL Open source graphical ontology browser and editor
HAWK OWL repository framework and toolkit
Heart of Gold Heart of Gold is a middleware for the integration of deep and shallow natural language processing components. It provides a uniform and flexible infrastructure for building applications that use Robust Minimal Recursion Semantics (RMRS) and/or general XML standoff annotation produced by NLP components
HELENOS A Knowledge discovery workbench for the semantic Web
I-X Process Panels The I-X tool suite supports principled collaborations of human and computer agents in the creation or modification of some product.
Identify Knowledge Base Identify-Knowledge-Base is a tool of Topic Identification about Knowledge Base
IF-Map IF-Map is an Information Flow based ontology mapping method. It is based on the theoretical grounds of logic of distributed systems and provides an automated streamlined process for generating mappings between ontologies of the same domain.
ILP for Information Extraction To overcome the knowledge acquisition bottleneck, we apply Inductive Logic Programming techniques to learn Information Extraction rules.
Internet Reasoning Service The Internet Reasoning Service provides a a number of tools which supports the publication, location, composition and execution of heterogeneous web services, specified using semantic web technology
IODT IBM’s toolkit for ontology-driven development
IsaViz IsaViz is a visual authoring tool for browsing and authoring RDF models represented as graphs. Developed by Emmanuel Pietriga of W3C and Xerox Research Centre Europe.
Jambalaya Protégé plug-in for visualizing ontologies
Jastor Open source Java code generator that emits Java Beans from ontologies
Javascript RDF/Turtle parser Javascript RDF/Turtle parser, can be used with Jibbering
Jena Jena is a Java framework to construct Semantic Web Applications. It provides a programmatic environment for RDF, RDFS and OWL, SPARQL and includes a rule-based inference engine. It also has the ability to be used as an RDF database via its Joseki layer. See the jena discussion list for more information
Jibbering Jibbering, a simple javascript RDF Parser and query thingy
Joseki Jena’s Joseki layer offers an RDF Triple Store facility with SPARQL interface (see also the entry on Jena)
JRDF JRDF Java RDF Binding is an attempt to create a standard set of APIs and base implementations to RDF using Java. Includes a SPARQL GUI.
KAON Open source ontology management infrastructure
KAON2 KAON2 is an an infrastructure for managing OWL-DL, SWRL, and F-Logic ontologies. it is capable of manipulating OWL-DL ontologies; queries can be formulated using SPARQL
Kazuki Generates a java API for working with OWL instance data directly from a set of OWL ontologies
KIM Platform KIM is a software platform for the semantic annotation of text, automatic ontology population, indexing and retrieval, and information extraction from Ontotext
KnoZilla
Knowledge Broker The knowledge broker addresses the problem of knowledge service location in distributed environments.
Kowari Open source database for RDF and OWL
KRAFT – I-X TIE Supports collaboration among members of a virtual organisation by integrating workflow and communication technology with constraint solving.
LingPipe LingPipe is a suite of Java tools designed to perform linguistic analysis on natural language data. LingPipe’s flexibility and included source make it appropriate for research use. Version 1.0 tools include a statistical named-entity detector, a heuristic sentence boundary detector, and a heuristic within-document coreference resolution engine
LinguaStream LinguaStream is an integrated experimentation environment (IEE) targeted to researchers in Natural Language Processing. LinguaStream allows processing streams to be assembled visually, picking individual components in a “palette” (the standard set contains about fifty components, and is easily extensible using a Java API, a macro-component system, and templates). Some components are specifically targeted to NLP, while others solve various issues related to document engineering (especially to XML processing). Other components are to be used in order to perform computations on the annotations produced by the analysers, to visualise annotated documents, to generate charts, etc.
LinKFactory Language & Computing’s LinKFactory is an ontology management tool, it provides an effective and user-friendly way to create, maintain and extend extensive multilingual terminology systems and ontologies (English, Spanish, French, etc.). It is designed to build, manage and maintain large, complex, language independent ontologies.
Lucene Apache Lucene is a high-performance, full-featured text search engine library written entirely in Java. It is a technology suitable for nearly any application that requires full-text search, especially cross-platform. It is open source
LuMriX A commercial search engine using semantic Web technologies
Magpie Magpie supports the interpretation of web documents through on-the-fly ontologically based enrichment. Semantic services can be invoked either by the user or be automatically triggered by patterns of browsing activity
Melita Melita is a semi-automatic annotation tool using an Adaptive Information Extraction engine (Amilcare)to support the user in document annotation.
MetaMatrix Semantic vocabulary mediation and other tools
Metatomix Commercial semantic toolkits and editors
MindRaider Open source semantic Web outline editor
MnM MnM is an annotation tool which provides both automated and semi-automated support for annotating web pages with semantic contents. MnM integrates a web browser with an ontology editor and provides open APIs to link to ontology servers and for integrating information extraction tool
Model Futures OWL Editor Simple OWL tools, featuring UML (XMI), ErWin, thesaurus and imports
Mulgara The Mulgara Semantic Store is an Open Source, massively scalable, transaction-safe, purpose-built database for the storage and retrieval of RDF, written in Java. It is an active fork of Kowari
Muskrat-II Given a set of knowledge bases and problems solvers, the Muskrat system will try to identify which knowledge bases could be combined with which problems solvers to solve a given problem.
MyPlanet MyPlanet allows users to create a personalised version of a web based newsletter using an ontologically based profile.
Net OWL Entity extraction engine from SRA International
NMARKUP NMARKUP helps the user build ontologies by detecting nouns in texts and by providing support for the creation of an ontology based on the entities extracted.
Nokia Semantic Web Server An RDF based knowledge portal for publishing both authoritative and third party descriptions of URI denoted resources
ONTOCOPI A tool which uncovers Communities Of Practise by analysing the connectivity of instances in the 3store knowledge base.
OntoEdit/OntoStudio Engineering environment for ontologies
OntoMat Annotizer Interactive Web page OWL and semantic annotator tool
OntoPortal Enables the authoring and navigation of large semantically-powered portals
OpenLink Data Spaces (ODS) ODS is a distributed collaborative application platform for creating Semantic Web applications such as: blogs, wikis, feed aggregators, etc., with built-in SPARQL support and incorporation of shared ontologies such as SIOC, FOAF, and Atom OWL. ODS is an application of OpenLink Virtuoso and is available in Open Source and Commercial Editions
Oracle Spatial 10g Oracle Spatial 10g includes an open, scalable, secure and reliable RDF management platform
Oyster Peer-to-peer system for storing and sharing ontology metadata
OWL Consistency checker OWL Consistency checker (based on Pellet)
OWL-DL Validator WonderWeb OWL-DL Validator
OWLJessKB OWLJessKB is a description logic reasoner for OWL. The semantics of the language is implemented using Jess, the Java Expert System Shell. Currently most of the common features of OWL lite, plus some and minus some
OWLIM OWLIM is a high-performance semantic repository, packaged as a Storage and Inference Layer (SAIL) for the Sesame RDF database
OWLViz OWLViz is visual editor for OWL and is available as a Protégéplug-in
Pellet Pellet is an open-source Java based OWL DL reasoner. It can be used in conjunction with both Jena and OWL API libraries; it can also be downloaded and be included in other applications
Piggy Bank A Firefox-based semantic Web browser
Pike A dynamic programming (scripting) language similar to Java and C for the semantic Web
pOWL Semantic Web development platform
Protégé Open source visual ontology editor written in Java with many plug-in tools
RACER A collection of Projects and Tools to be used with the semantic reasoning engine RacerPro
RacerPro RacerPro is an OWL reasoner and inference server for the Semantic Web
rdfabout.com’s Validator RDF/XML and N3 validator
RDF Gateway Intellidimension’s RDF Gateway is an RDF Triple database with RDFS reasoning and SPARQL interface
RDF InferEd Intellidimension’s RDF InferEd is an authoring environment with the ability to navigate and edit RDF documents
RDFLib RDFLib, an RDF libary for Python, including a SPARQL API. The library also contains both in-memory and persistent Graph backends
RDFReactor Access RDF from Java using inferencing
RDF Server The RDF server of the PHP RAP environment
RDFStore RDFStore is an RDF storage with Perl and C API-s and SPARQL facilities
RDFSuite The ICS-FORTH RDFSuite open source, high-level scalable tools for the Semantic Web. This suite includes Validating RDF Parser (VRP), a RDF Schema Specific DataBase (RSSDB) and supporting RDF Query Language (RQL)
Redland The Redland RDF Application Framework is a set of free software libraries that provide support for RDF. It provides parser for RDF/XML, Turtle, N-triples, Atom, RSS; has a SPARQL and GRDDL implementation, and has language interfaces to C#, Python, Obj-C, Perl, PHP, Ruby, Java and Tcl
RelationalOWL Automatically extracts the semantics of virtually any relational database and transforms this information automatically into RDF/OW
ReTAX+ ReTAX is an aide to help a taxonomist create a consistent taxonomy and in particular provides suggestions as to where a new entity could be placed in the taxonomy whilst retaining the integrity of the revised taxonomy (c.f., problems in ontology modelling).
Refiner++ REFINER++ is a system which allows domain experts to create and maintain their own Knowledge Bases, and to receive suggestions as to how to remove inconsistencies, if they exist.
Seamark Navigator Siderean’s Seamark Navigator provides a platform to combine Web search pages with product catalog databases, document servers, and other digital information from both inside and outside the enterprise
Semantic Annotation with MnM MnM is a semantic annotation tool which provides manual, automated and semi-automated support for annotating web pages with ‘semantics’, i.e., machine interpretable descriptions.
Semantical Open source semantic Web search engine
SemanticWorks A visual RDF/OWL Editor from Altova
Semantic Mediawiki Semantic extension to the MediaWiiki wiki
Semantic Net Generator Utility for generating topic maps automatically
SemWeb SemWeb for .NET supports persistent storage in MySQL, Postgre, and Sqlite; has been tested with 10-50 million triples; supports SPARQL
Sesame Sesame is an open source RDF database with support for RDF Schema inferencing and querying. It offers a large scale of tools to developers to leverage the power of RDF and RDF Schema
SMART System for Managing Applications based on RDF Technology
SMORE OWL markup for HTML pages
SPARQL Query language for RDF
SPARQLer SPARQL query demo and service
SPARQLette A SPARQL demo query service
SPARQL JavaScript Library SPARQL JavaScript Library interfaces to the SPARQL Protocol and interpret the return values as part of an AJAX framework
SWCLOS A semantic Web processor using Lisp
SWI-Prolog SWI-Prolog is a comprehensive Prolog environment, which also includes an RDF Triple store. There is also a separate Prolog library to handle OWL
Swish Swish is a framework for performing deductions in RDF. It has similar features to CWM. It is written for Haskell developers
Swoogle A semantic Web search engine with 1.5 M resources
SWOOP A lightweight ontology editor
TopBraid Composer Top Quandrant’s TopBraid Composer is a complete standards-based platform for developing, testing and maintaining Semantic Web applications
Tucana Suite Northrop Grumman’s Tucana Suite is an industrial quality version of the Kowari metastore
Turtle Terse RDF “Triple” language
Visualisations for the CS AKTive Portal Maps are used to geographically illustrate knowledge from the Triplestore, such as highlighting the locations in the UK that are active in a particular research area.
VisuaText VisualText ® is an integrated development environment for building information extraction systems, natural language processing systems, and text analyzers
W3C’s RDF Validator W3C’s RDF Validator
WebOnto WebOnto supports the browsing, creation and editing of ontologies through coarse grained and fine grained visualizations and direct manipulation.
Wilbur Wilbur is lisp based toolkit for Semantic Web Programming. Wilbur is Nokia Research Center’s toolkit for programming Semantic Web applications that use RDF written in Common Lisp
WSMO Studio A semantic Web service editor compliant with WSMO as a set of Eclipse plug-ins
WSMT Toolkit The Web Service Modeling Toolkit (WSMT) is a collection of tools for use with the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO), the Web Service Modeling Language (WSML) and the Web Service Execution Environment (WSMX)
WSMX Execution environment for dynamic use of semantic Web services
XML Army Knife XML Army Knife
XMP A labeling technology from Adobe that enables data about a file to be embedded as metadata into the file itself.
YARS YARS (Yet Another RDF Store) is a data store for RDF in Java and allows for querying RDF based on a declarative query language, which offers a somewhat higher abstraction layer than the APIs of RDF toolkits such as Jena or Redland
Zotero Firefox add-in (in development) that allows the auto-completion of online citations